Dear developer, you're working in a project that uses Team Foundation Server, TFS. You're used to check-out and check-in your files. You feel comfortable with it. But, now you have moved to a different project that uses Git or your company has decided to migrate to Git. Where are my changesets now? How do I check-out my files? How these two things relate to each other?–you ask. Keep reading!
Centralized vs Distributed
Centralized version control systems need a server in place to operate. To check a file, view the history of a file or perform any other operation you need to communicate to a server.
But, distributed version control systems don't need a server. Each operation is performed in a local copy of the project. And you could choose to sync your local copy with a server later on. Have you guest which one belongs to each category? TFS is a centralized version control system and Git a distributed one.1
This distinction brings some differences between TFS and Git. These are some of them.
Have you ever needed to modify a file and you can't because a co-worker is working in that file too? Although, this is a feature that can be turned on or off in TFS, it isn't available in Git. Because, there is no lock on files to have only one user working in a file at a time. Each developer works in his own copy of the project.
Before starting to work with a project under TFS, you need some "mappings", where the files in TFS server will be in your computer. But, with Git, you can clone and keep a project anywhere in your computer.
Checking and Pushing
After modifying some files, you want to version control them. With TFS you "check-in" your files. This means, those files are kept in the history of the project and synced with the server. But, with Git, your committed files live only in your local copy of the project, until you sync or push them to a server.
With Git, branches have a new meaning. You could have lots of light-weight and short-lived branches to try things out, solve bugs or do your work. By convention, all Git repositories start with a branch called master.
The master/slave methaphor is discouraged these days. Starting from Git 2.28, Git will use the configuration value
init.defaultBranchto name the default branch. Other alternatives for master are: main, primary or default.
Gitflow, a branching model
Maybe, you have worked with one branch per environment: Dev, QA, Beta and Production. You start every new task on the Dev branch.
But, there is another branch model. Gitflow workflow suggests that the master branch mirrors the Production environment. The develop branch is where everyday work happens. But, every new task starts in a separate branch taken from develop. Once you're done with your task, you merge this branch back to develop.
In case of bugs or issues in Production, you create a new branch from master. And you merge it back to master and develop once you're done fixing the issue.
Every release has a separate branch, too. This release branch is also merged to master and develop. For more details, see Introducing GitFlow.
Pull or Merge Requests
Some projects adopt another convention. Nobody pushes or syncs directly to the master branch.
Instead, every new task needs to go through a review phase using a pull or merge request. "The author of the task asks to merge his changes into the current codebase", hence that name.
Most of the time, this review is done through a web tool or web interface. After the review, the same tool will allow the reviewer to merge the changes to the destination branch.
This is a relationship between TFS and Git concepts.
- Changesets = commits: Be aware commits could live only in your computer, until you upload your changes to a server. If you want to collaborate with others or host your code somewhere else, just in case. Have you ever heard about Github, Gitlab or Bitbucket?
Check-in = Commit + Push:
git commit -m 'A beatiful commit message'+
git push origin my-branch
Get latest version = Pull:
git pull origin my-branchBy convention, the name associated to the sync server is origin
Branch = Branch + Checkout:
git checkout -b a-new-branch
Shelve = stash: If you want to temporary suspend your work and resume it later, you use a shelve in TFS or an stash with Git. To create an stash
git stash -uand
git stash applyto bring back your changes.
Please, do not be afraid of using the command line and memorizing lots of commands. There are Git clients and out-of-the-box integrations (or plugins) for Git in most popular IDEs. For example, Visual Studio and Visual Studio Code support Git out-of-the-box, and SourceTree is a Git client you can download for free.
For a more in-depth guide to version control with Git, read my guide on How to version control your projects with Git.
Happy Git time!
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