Interesting article. I’ve experienced some of these issues myself.
A lot of css frameworks have greatly improved over the years though and come with less default styles and are much easier to override with sass variables. Foundation 5 to 6 did exactly this.
A lot of them also allow including just the modules you need, so you can include the core and then just the grid or buttons, etc. as you need. Bulma is good for this too.
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