The fact that you can use && and || as control structures is a consequence of short circuit evaluation and that is something every programmer should understand.
I do agree that these operators have not been introduced for this purpose and that this style can be less readable.
They are quite handy when you need to get a property nested in an object, like let foo = obj && obj.child && obj.child.foo || "", especially when a default fallback value is needed.
But when it's used as a condition, it's a bit annoying and IMO much less readable at first glance.
let foo = obj && obj.child && obj.child.foo || ""
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