For me, it would be the following concepts, preferably in order:
The obvious "intro to programming" course in whatever language - Basically the very basics of how code works, control flow, etc
Introduction to object-oriented programming - Would most likely be taught in Java - Wouldn't get into design patterns, but would introduce the basics of how classes work in a naive approach (i.e. "Dog and Cat extend Animal")
Data structures and introduction to algorithm analysis/efficiency - Could probably just go back to Java for this - Would solidify the idea of interface vs implementation, and how to analyze/improve basic algorithms in data structures (find, insert, delete, sort, etc)
Design patterns - Could also be done in Java - Basically the big "You know the concepts, now here's how to do it right in large codebases"
At that point you have a really strong core that will give you a baseline to learn everything else you'd need. Further concepts could include:
Web dev (JS and appropriate frameworks)
Low-level dev (C)
Databases (More of a theory course, but labs could be done in Python/JS for library availability)
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