Static type systems find certain kinds of mistakes at compile time, which is often orders of magnitude faster than running the code, especially when getting a piece of code to run takes several steps such as clicking around a GUI. I find this a huge productivity boost as they're a kind of mistake I tend to make very frequently. I particularly enjoy algebraic data types in languages like Haskell, Elm and Rust, which can encode a set of states in a way that guarantees validity at compile time while making code more explicit and readable for humans as well.
Regardless of the type system used, I consider explicit type annotations one of the most important aspects of readable code and documentation. I've been getting familiar with some Python code lately and finding a lot of friction in function signatures - if a function doesn't say what type of data it wants to be called with or what it returns, I have to skim through the entire function body or find a call site to figure out how to use it. With type annotations I can get nearly as much information from one line.
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