“You aren’t gonna need it” (acronym: YAGNI) is a principle of extreme programming (XP) that states a programmer should not add functionality until deemed necessary.
XP co-founder Ron Jeffries has written: “Always implement things when you actually need them, never when you just foresee that you need them.”
This is the most misinterpreted and hence awful, hazardous, and detrimental principle ever stated in the Book of the Wrong Advises for Developers.
As far as I can tell, originally it meant “Don’t install a fifth wheel on your car unless you are participating the 5-wheeled-cars-rally.” Nowadays it’s widely used as an excuse to reject doing their job from the lazy and arrogant developers. I rarely agree with Martin Fowler, but this is a brilliant wording explaining the issue:
Yagni only applies to capabilities built into the software to support a presumptive feature, it does not apply to effort to make the software easier to modify.
This principle works well when a Smart Senior Developer does a code review for an ambitious young Junior, who wants to conquer the world with their first PR. Being given a task to implement a flag in the user profile, denoting whether the user is active or not, Juniors often tend to invent a whole General Purpose Flag Subsystem. With an embedded LISP implementation for easy DSL, running in the cloud as an independent microservice, written in Lua to make it possible to launch it as Nginx plugin.
In that particular case YAGNI multiplied by the authority of this Smart Senior does the trick: the flag remains the boolean column in the database, the task is delivered in time (meaning, in this century, as an opposite to what was proposed by the proactive Junior) and everybody (including the business) is happy.
Truth is mighty and will prevail. There is nothing wrong with this, except that it ain’t so.
— Mark Twain
That’s the thing. Even a kitchen knife might be used to kill people, and this YAGNI concept is a perfect example of such a menace. It’s a great excuse to reject nearly any CR suggestions: “this already works, yagn anything else, period.” Unfortunately, in my experience 9 out of 10 times, I accepted YAGNI argument, it resulted in me implementing the stuff we were not going to need. Usually, it happens in a month, sometimes—tomorrow. In some cases, it was not only implementing what I suggested, but completely rewriting the whole code piece, because that YAGNI implies unmaintainable, not ready for extensions code.
In 1930s Pepsi-Cola launched 12oz bottles fighting Coca-Cola’s domination. Coca-Cola responded with YAGNI and lost 30% of the market.
In 1970s Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi, and smaller Japanese companies made a bid on low fuel consumption. ‘YAGNI,’ responded American autoconcern and lost nearly half of the market in the next decade.
Nowadays every single YAGNI used as an excuse for the unwillingness to accomplish the task considering all the consequences results in 10× times to recover from the YAGNI-code. Which is nearly always unmaintainable, error-prone and not ready for any subsequent changes. The rule of thumb would be:
While in code review, the reviewer might use YAGNI to prevent a waste of time on unwanted and/or unexpected features. The code owner has no right to use YAGNI as an argument to prove their delusion and/or reluctance to make the code friendly to future changes.
That simple, thus it works.
And, the last but not the least: never, never excuse yourself with YAGNI. There are usually many people all around: team leader, project manager, product manager, CTO, CEO, your spouse whining about you spend too little time with them, to prevent you from doing a redundant stuff. There are many, many colleagues, who will tell you “YAGNI” when needed. But as soon as you have caught yourself choosing the easiest path because of YAGNI, find the strength in yourself to resist. Unless you are going to qualify as Development Evangelist and Coach in Silicon Valley next year, of course. There works any garbage.