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Things that will go wrong in a distributed system

A (very) incomplete list of things that will go wrong in any distributed system.


  • The network will be partitioned
  • Latency will grow more than expected
  • Timeouts will happen on nodes that are alive
  • Your network bandwidth is limited, and you will hit that limit


  • Clocks will go backward
  • Monotonic clocks will go backward [1], [2]
  • Clocks will be out of sync, by more than a few seconds sometimes
  • Your NTP server will die
  • You will have timezone issues



  • Without SSI, you will have inconsistencies
  • Without SSI, you will lose data
  • Without a proper consensus, you will have more than one leader
  • With a proper concensus algorithm, you will have issues too
  • Without linearizability, clients will time travel
  • Without 2PC, you will have inconsistencies

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