Computers works with numbers (binary encoded). To make computers work with letters we come up with encoding. We agreed that, for example, 64 stands for A, 65 for B etc. ASCII is a standard which describes encoding (one of them).
ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII was originally designed for use with teletypes.
For historical reasons ASCII overlived original teletypes, teletypes were used to interact with mainframes (very big old computers with size of a room), then this standard was adopted for other computers and it survived till our days. UTF-8 keep these exact mappings (for compatibility reasons).
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