If you're talking about Typescript, it won't catch them, because in my opinion Typescript is not meant to be used to define user interfaces and user inputs (unless you're talking about .tsx files, but it's going to get too specific, which is out of topic). In general, side effects I/O such as user inputs should be validated/specified by an end-to-end test.
In HTML, you can definitely set a "type" to your inputs (for example <input type="number" /> for number-only inputs). But again, the context matters. If you have a use case and you have your own set of expectations of what a strongly-typed language should do, maybe I can understand your problem better.
<input type="number" />
answer is more apt, I guess it's better for me to say that strongly-typed languages help you to define/catch errors before runtime, and outside of that (like user inputs) it should be handled differently (maybe an e2e test).
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