So I don't know if this counts as "federated", per se, but Perl's CPAN has had a bunch of mirrors for a very long time. Many companies who used Perl back in the day would mirror CPAN as a way of giving back to the community, and using a program called minicpan, it was (and still is) easy to set up a mirror locally on your own harddrive. I've found this useful in the past for speeding up installs, browsing documentation for modules I don't have installed on an airplane, etc.
Of course, that's only one part of it - publishing a module still needed to happen through a service called PAUSE. However, you can add whatever modules you want without PAUSE - private or otherwise - to a CPAN mirror you maintain; all you need to do is make sure your CPAN installer is pointed at the right mirror.
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