There are a few articles over the internet from people that tried to do it as a learning experience and documented it, however I can't find one good enough right now.
Those 3 topics I think are the core of every frontend framework:
So you can start by trying to find out how you are going to implement components.
Once you have that, you should start with the actual rendering. The gotcha here is to render components recursively (one component has another on its template, so when you render the parent every child gets rendered eventually).
Once you have that, start with change detection. This is the most tricky point I think, because it has to be done recursively also, but it can be a headache to keep it performant.
You can check the source code and issue trackers of existing frameworks to try to extract some techniques and knowledge about how they solved it.
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