## DEV Community

Douglas R Andreani

Posted on • Updated on

# Introduction to data structures (Queues)

One of the most overlooked concepts within computer science is data structures. Have a good understanding of its concepts, design and application can transform you from a simple coder to a more capable and resourceful professional.

One can briefly summarize a generic data structure as a mean to store data in memory as an organized fashion. And for that, there are several types of structures, each one with its specific use case and scenario.

## Queues

Imagine you are excited to ride in this new attraction at the park. You arrive, there are a hundred people waiting in line for the same ride.

Queues can be very useful when you want to process data in the order. First in, First out or (FIFO). Every data element must be inserted at the end and removed from the top.

``````struct element {
int data;
struct element *next;
};

typedef struct {
struct element *start;
struct element *end;
}queue;

queue* q;

void newqueue(queue* q){
q->start = NULL;
q->end = NULL;
}

/// Add element to the queue. O(1)
void enqueue(struct element* e){

if(q->start == NULL){
q->start = e;
q->end = e;
} else {
struct element* aux;
q->end->next = e;
q->end = e;
e->next = NULL;
}
}

/// Remove element from the queue O(1)
void dequeue(struct element* e){
e = q->start;
q->start = e->next;
}

/// Get size of the queue. O(n)
int size(){
int s = 0;
struct element* curr;
curr=q->start;
while(curr->next != NULL){
curr = curr->next;
s++;
}
return ++s;
}

/// Peek at the nth element of the queue. O(n)
void peek(int n, struct element* e){
int s = 0;
struct element* curr;
curr=q->start;
e = NULL;
while(curr->next != NULL){
if (n==s) e = curr;

curr = curr->next;
s++;
}
}

``````

The form presented above is the most standard implementation. You can implement queues only shifting elements on a dynamic array, but this would cause the queue/enqueue operations to drop their efficiency to O(n).

## Examples where queues can be useful

Now that you understand a queue and it's implementation. Let's discuss where to implement them.

The most common case for a queue implementation is inside the producer/consumer scenario. The producer will generate data to be consumed and it can be faster than the consumer. For that reason, a queue at the consumer will organize the data income allowing it to be consumed in order of oldest to newest data.