DEV Community 👩‍💻👨‍💻

fpim
fpim

Posted on

Object-Oriented Design architecture with Panda

Hi guys. Today I would like to talk about implementing Object-oriented (OO) Design to build a Business Intelligence module with Python and Pandas.

Pandas is widely used for data analytics, it is easy to use, one can easily build a script of hundreds of lines of codes using pandas to handle complex data. However, having worked with many data analysts, I found that most of the scripts produced by data analysts should fall into the category of "procedural code", which is not reusable. Changing the context a bit would often result in a complete re-write of the code. It is fine if you are in the "research" area where your code is used for "exploration" or "experimental" purposes, but if you are to write code that contributes to a larger system or code that will be run repeatedly, you need to implement some architecture.

My Background

I work in finance where I need to handle data with complex relationship daily. The raw data that I received is usually too "raw" such that extracting any useful information from it often requires a lot of steps. Code could easily become impossible to maintain due to the mismatch of raw data structure and business logic.

The solution

Soon I realized that I needed a OO layer on top of the raw data to handle all the complexity. The reason I use the term OO layer here is that OO is essentially an abstraction layer. It allows you to focus on business logic only, instead of having to worry about how to implement business from raw data. Architecture is all about reducing your cognitive burden when you try to edit a codebase.

The Data

We will try to build a OO model for some trade data:

Account, Stock_Code, BuySell, Date, Quantity, Unit_Price
1001 001 B 20190105 8 2
1001 002 B 20190105 4 3
1001 002 S 20190106 3 1
1001 003 B 20190106 6 5
1001 003 S 20190106 4 6
1001 001 S 20190107 6 3
1002 001 B 20190105 6 2
1002 002 B 20190105 8 3
1002 002 S 20190106 3 1
1002 003 B 20190106 5 5
1002 003 S 20190106 4 6
1002 001 S 20190107 6 3




some account information:

Account, Name
1001 David
1002 Tom




and some closing price data:

Stock_Code, Closing_Price, Data
001 2 20190105
001 3 20190106
001 2 20190107
002 2 20190105
002 3 20190106
002 5 20190107
003 5 20190105
003 6 20190106
003 7 20190107

First, we will have a "Data Layer" to handle the i/o of source data. since we don't have the actual data source, we will
mock it up:

import pandas as pd
from io import StringIO

class Data():

    def trade_df(self):
        # This method should handle the import of source data
        data = StringIO()

        s = """
        Account|Stock_Code|BuySell|Date|Quantity|Unit_Price
        1001|001|B|20190105|8|2
        1001|002|B|20190105|4|3
        1001|002|S|20190106|3|1
        1001|003|B|20190106|6|5
        1001|003|S|20190106|4|6
        1001|001|S|20190107|6|3
        1002|001|B|20190105|6|2
        1002|002|B|20190105|8|3
        1002|002|S|20190106|3|1
        1002|003|B|20190106|5|5
        1002|003|S|20190106|4|6
        1002|001|S|20190107|6|3
        """

        data.write(s.replace(' ',''))
        data.seek(0)
        df = pd.read_csv(data,sep='|',dtype={'Account':str,
                                                'Date':str,
                                                'Stock_Code':str,
                                                "Date":str})
        df.Date = pd.to_datetime(df.Date,format='%Y%m%d')
        return df

    def account_df(self):
        data = StringIO()

        s = """
        Account|Name
        1001|David
        1002|Tom
        """

        data.write(s.replace(' ',''))
        data.seek(0)
        df = pd.read_csv(data, sep='|', dtype={'Account': str,
                                                  'Name': str})
        return df

    def stock_prices(self):

        data = StringIO()

        s = """
        Stock_Code|Closing_Price|Date
        001|2|20190105
        001|3|20190106
        001|2|20190107
        002|2|20190105
        002|3|20190106
        002|5|20190107
        003|5|20190105
        003|6|20190106
        003|7|20190107
        """

        data.write(s.replace(' ',''))
        data.seek(0)
        df = pd.read_csv(data, sep='|', dtype={'Stock_Code': str,
                                                  'Date': str})
        df.Date = pd.to_datetime(df.Date,format='%Y%m%d')
        return df

The Data object should handle the import and validation of the data only, and it should not implement and business logic.

Then on top of the Data object, we will build our first OO layer:

class Book():
    def __init__(self):
        self._data = Data()

    @property
    def trade_book_df(self):
        if not hasattr(self,'_trade_book_df'):
            df = self._data.trade_df().join(self._data.account_df().set_index('Account'),on='Account')
            df['Trade_Amount'] = df.Quantity * df.Unit_Price
            self._trade_book_df = df
        return self._trade_book_df

    def stock_prices(self,date=None):
        df = self._data.stock_prices()
        if date:
            df = df[df.Date == date]
        return df

    @property
    def holdings(self):
        return Holdings(self)

    @property
    def accounts(self):
        return Accounts(self.holdings)

Book().trade_book_df

|    |   Account |   Stock_Code | BuySell   | Date                |   Quantity |   Unit_Price | Name   |   Trade_Amount |
|---:|----------:|-------------:|:----------|:--------------------|-----------:|-------------:|:-------|---------------:|
|  0 |      1001 |          001 | B         | 2019-01-05 00:00:00 |          8 |            2 | David  |             16 |
|  1 |      1001 |          002 | B         | 2019-01-05 00:00:00 |          4 |            3 | David  |             12 |
|  2 |      1001 |          002 | S         | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |          3 |            1 | David  |              3 |
|  3 |      1001 |          003 | B         | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |          6 |            5 | David  |             30 |
|  4 |      1001 |          003 | S         | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |          4 |            6 | David  |             24 |
|  5 |      1001 |          001 | S         | 2019-01-07 00:00:00 |          6 |            3 | David  |             18 |
|  6 |      1002 |          001 | B         | 2019-01-05 00:00:00 |          6 |            2 | Tom    |             12 |
|  7 |      1002 |          002 | B         | 2019-01-05 00:00:00 |          8 |            3 | Tom    |             24 |
|  8 |      1002 |          002 | S         | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |          3 |            1 | Tom    |              3 |
|  9 |      1002 |          003 | B         | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |          5 |            5 | Tom    |             25 |
| 10 |      1002 |          003 | S         | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |          4 |            6 | Tom    |             24 |
| 11 |      1002 |          001 | S         | 2019-01-07 00:00:00 |          6 |            3 | Tom    |             18 |

  1. The Book object has a _data attribute which owns the Data object.
  2. The trade_book_df property implemented two business logic:
    • The joining of trade_df and account_df.
    • The definition of Trade_Amount -> Quantity * Unit_Price.
  3. The stock_prices method extracts stock prices of a specific date.
  4. It provides the gateways to the Holdings and Accounts context which we are going to talk about.

Contexts

"Context" is the dimension you want to view the data, all the views with the same dimension should be encapsulated
in one object.

For example, to view the data in the "Holding" context, we need to:

  1. aggregate the trade data up to a certain point of time.
  2. multiply holding quantity and stock's closing price to obtain the market value.
class Holdings():
    def __init__(self,book):
        self._book = book

    def holdings_of(self,date):
        trades_df = self._book.trade_book_df
        date_hld_df = trades_df[trades_df.Date <= date]
        date_hld_df['qnt_change'] = date_hld_df['BuySell'].map({'B':1,'S':-1}) * date_hld_df.Quantity
        hld_df = date_hld_df.groupby(['Account','Stock_Code'],as_index=False)\
            .agg({'qnt_change':sum})\
            .rename(columns={'qnt_change':'Holdings'})
        hld_df = hld_df.join(self._book.stock_prices(date).set_index('Stock_Code'),on='Stock_Code')
        hld_df['Market_Value'] = hld_df.Closing_Price * hld_df.Holdings
        return hld_df

from datetime import date
Book().holdings.holdings_of(date(2019,1,6))

|    |   Account |   Stock_Code |   Holdings |   Closing_Price | Date                |   Market_Value |
|---:|----------:|-------------:|-----------:|----------------:|:--------------------|---------------:|
|  0 |      1001 |          001 |          8 |               3 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |             24 |
|  1 |      1001 |          002 |          1 |               3 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |              3 |
|  2 |      1001 |          003 |          2 |               6 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |             12 |
|  3 |      1002 |          001 |          6 |               3 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |             18 |
|  4 |      1002 |          002 |          5 |               3 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |             15 |
|  5 |      1002 |          003 |          1 |               6 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |              6 |

You can then build context on top of context. For example you can have an Accounts context built on top of the
Holdings context:

class Accounts():
    def __init__(self,holdings):
        self._holdings = holdings

    def account_value(self,date):
        df = self._holdings.holdings_of(date)
        return df.groupby('Account',as_index=False).agg({'Market_Value':sum,
                                                         'Date':'first'})

Book().accounts.account_value(date(2019,1,6))

|    |   Account |   Market_Value | Date                |
|---:|----------:|---------------:|:--------------------|
|  0 |      1001 |             39 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |
|  1 |      1002 |             39 | 2019-01-06 00:00:00 |

Summary

The above is a simple example of how OO Design can be applied to your pandas script. The architecture allows you to scale up easily as the number of data source increase. This has been just a very brief introduction, there are many more modeling techniques you can use to manage complex data. Finally, I want to stress that these techniques are becoming more and more important.
Traditionally, this kind of problem can be handled by the database and relational model, but given the growing complexity and scatteredness of the data, you are more likely to encounter situations where your database cannot handle everything and you will need some supplement from your code,
especially when you need data from multiple data source.

Top comments (0)

Timeless DEV post...

How to write a kickass README

Arguably the single most important piece of documentation for any open source project is the README. A good README not only informs people what the project does and who it is for but also how they use and contribute to it.

If you write a README without sufficient explanation of what your project does or how people can use it then it pretty much defeats the purpose of being open source as other developers are less likely to engage with or contribute towards it.