## Installation

Getting started official guide

```
cargo new my-project # create new project
cargo build # build the project
cargo run # run main()
```

```
rustup --version
rustup check # checks if newer version is available
rustup update
```

```
cargo fmt # runs rustfmt formatter
cargo clippy # detects and fixes problems in code
```

## Hello World!

```
fn main() {
println!("Hello, world!"); // '!' means this is a macro
// strings are enclosed in double quotes
}
```

## Binding

```
fn main() {
let x = 5; // this is binding, in other languages know as definition
// x is immutable (constant)
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
// x += 5 would throw an error
// x = 10 also throws an error
let y: u32 = 6;
println!("Value of y is: {}", y);
}
```

## Shadowing

```
fn main() {
let x = 5;
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
let x = x + 5;
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
}
```

## Mut binding

```
fn main() {
let mut x = 5; // mutable binding, uses keyword 'mut'
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
x = 10;
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
x += 1; // Rust does not support neither x++ nor ++x
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
}
```

## Data types

Number of bits | Signed | Unsigned |
---|---|---|

8-bit | i8 | u8 |

16-bit | i16 | u16 |

32-bit | i32 | u32 |

64-bit | i64 | u64 |

128-bit | i128 | u128 |

arch | isize | usize |

## Numeric literals

Type | Example |
---|---|

Decimal | 98_222 |

Hexa | 0xff |

Octal | 0o77 |

Binary | 0b1111_0000 |

Byte (u8) | b'A' |

## Constants

```
const MAX_POINTS: u32 = 100_000;
```

## Floating point numbers

```
fn main() {
let x = 2.0; // f64
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
let x: f32 = 10;
println!("Value of x is: {}", x);
}
```

## Type conversion

```
fn main() {
let x = 2;
let y: f64 = x as f64;
let z: i32 = y as i32;
let pi: f32 = 3.14;
let u: f32 = pi.trunc();
let v: f32 = pi.ceil();
let w: f32 = pi.floor();
println!("Value of u is: {}", u); // 3
println!("Value of v is: {}", v); // 4
println!("Value of w is: {}", w); // 3
}
```

## Booleans

```
fn main() {
let t = true;
let f: bool = false; // explicit type
let value: i32 = f as i32; // bool is in Rust always either 0 or 1. Nothing else.
}
```

## Characters

```
fn main() {
let c = 'z'; // 'char'
let z = 'ℤ'; // 'char'
let heart_eyed_cat = '😻'; // 'char'; character is utf-8,
// therefore it is not compatible with byte, i. e. u8
}
```

## Tuples

```
fn main() {
let tup: (i32, f64, u8) = (500, 6.4, 1);
let tup = (500, 6.4, 1);
let (x, y, z) = tup;
println!("The value of y is: {}", y);
let five_hundred = tup.0;
let six_point_four = tup.1;
let one = tup.2;
}
```

## Arrays

```
fn main() {
let a: [i32; 5] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
let b = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
let first = a[0];
let second = a[1];
let index = 2;
let element = a[index];
println!("The value of element is: {}", element);
let months = ["January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June",
"July", "August", "September", "October", "November",
"December"];
}
```

## Functions

```
fn main() {
another_function(5, 6);
}
fn another_function(x: i32, y: i32) {
println!("The value of x is: {}", x);
println!("The value of y is: {}", y);
}
```

## Conditions

```
fn main() {
let number = 6;
if number % 4 == 0 {
println!("number is divisible by 4");
} else if number % 3 == 0 {
println!("number is divisible by 3");
} else if number % 2 == 0 {
println!("number is divisible by 2");
} else {
println!("number is not divisible by 4, 3, or 2");
}
let condition = true;
let number2 = if condition { 5 } else { 6 };
println!("The value of number is: {}", number2) // 5
}
```

## Loop

```
fn main() {
let mut counter = 0;
let result = loop {
counter += 1;
if counter == 10 {
break counter * 2;
}
};
println!("The result is {}", result); // 20
}
```

## While

```
fn main() {
let a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50];
let mut index = 0;
while index < 5 {
println!("The value is: {}", a[index]);
index += 1;
}
}
```

## Handling input

```
use std::io;
fn main() {
loop {
println!("Please enter some number.");
let mut number = String::new();
io::stdin()
.read_line(&mut number)
.expect("Failed to read line");
let number: u32 = match number.trim().parse() {
Ok(num) => num,
Err(_) => continue,
};
println!("Your number: {}", number);
break;
}
}
```

# Exercise

## Task

User enters 3 numbers, which correspond to the sizes of triangle sides. The programm computes circumference, area, whether the triangle is equilateral, isosceles or right.

## Solution

Check out my learning Rust repo on GitHub!

## Discussion (3)

Thanks a lost , Sir

Petr Janikfor great work, we are 34 rust coders following you by WhatsApp group here.chat.whatsapp.com/CkJTxjlYCfhEQsm0...

I am so glad you found my article helpful!

yes sir.