15 must-know JavaScript array methods in 2020

Ibrahima Ndaw on January 09, 2020

Originally posted on my blog In JavaScript, an array is a special variable that is used to store different elements. It has some built-in properti... [Read Full]
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This post could be called just "15 must-know JavaScript array methods". No need the "in 2020".


I don't think these methods were really necessary in 2019, but now? Can't do without them.


I'd say they were necessary in 2018 and possibly even earlier. All these "in 2020" articles are clickbait in my opinion.

This is your opinion, and I fully respect it. However, I've added "in 2020", to just make this article easy to find for beginners. And also knowing these methods is relevant for 2020, in my opinion, because most of them introduce you to functional programming.


I totally agree. We hear more and more functional programming in JavaScript world. And using some of these methods makes sense because they manipulate the array in an immutable way.


I think "in 2020" is more fun. No, I'm kidding. I will update the title next week to not limit it in "2020" only. Thanks for your comment


Leave it. It helps with the SEO and, if anything, it will show first for beginners when they search for it. It's an important article and the 2020 really doesn't hurt anyone


I personally like includes() for transforming a code like

if (value === 1 || value === 2 || value === 3) {...}


if ([1, 2, 3].includes(value)) {...}


Nice article.
But I am confused what is the difference between map and forEach? Output looks the same.


map and forEach technically they do the same job. They both iterate your data holden in a given array. But under the hood they are different. map instead of manipulating the array directly, it will return a new array that contains an image of each element of the array. In the case of forEach, it will manipulate the array directly. That's the difference.


The example is not particularly well chosen. map is about data transformation, so using it for a side-effect like console.log leads to confusion.

Something like the following would maybe better illustrate the point:

const myAwesomeArray = [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
const squares = myAwesomeArray.map(x => x * x)

Even with your example, it will be not that clear. I think the difference is made by the definition. But anyway, I will update the code with your example. Thanks

It's at least clearer that the intent of map is returning an array with modified data, not performing an action on each element.

I totally agree. I've updated the example with yours. Thanks again for your suggestion.


map() takes a function as argument which will run on all elements on the array (getting a transformed value), and then return a new array with all transformed values.
If we run the following array through .map(x => x + 1) we get:

[1, 2, 3]
 |  |  |
 v  v  v
[2, 3, 4]

forEach() will just iterate on the array. Its return value is undefined.

Neither function will mutate the original array.


Great explanations and examples. Thanks again


There is one issue with the 2nd example used in the flatmap. The .flat() call at the end isn't needed, if you run the following code you will see that it evaluates to true

JSON.stringify(myAwesomeArray.map(arr => arr * 10)) === JSON.stringify( myAwesomeArray.map(arr => arr * 10).flat())

The issue is that if you execute [1] * 10 it will return 10 and not [10] as you would expect


There is no issue with that code. It's just two examples.
The first is used with flatMap()

const myAwesomeArray = [[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]

myAwesomeArray.flatMap(arr => arr * 10)
//-------> Output : [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]

And the second uses flat() and map().

const myAwesomeArray = [[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]

// With .map() and .flat()
myAwesomeArray.map(arr => arr * 10).flat()
//-------> Output : [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]

As a side note, with flatMap(), the map() function is applied first and flat() comes after.


Hi there, great article thanks!

I think you forgot about another method, which is similar to reduce: reduceRight.


It's a handy method, but it's very similar to reduce except that reduceRight() start reducing the array from the right to the left. And for the case of reduce(), it starts from left to right. Thanks for your comment


I think everyone know .push(), but recently I need .shift().

I think I might not need double-ended dequeue, yet.

The most important things you should emphasize, IMO, are,

  • Mutating / Non-mutating
  • Returns Array / returns something else

Some other should-know, I think, are

  • Array constructor
  • Array.from

Great feedback. I will do a post on it later. Thanks again :).


Great article, love that every single one of them is to the point and clear.

One small typo to fix is for Number 13 (Includes), the output should be "true".


Sorry, for the mistyping. Now it's good :). Thanks again for reading it


Last one is wrong, myAwesomeArray.map(arr => arr * 10).flat()

It should be

myAwesomeArray.flat().map(arr => arr * 10)


It's not wrong. I've just followed the way flatMap() work. It applies map() first and flat() after. Therefore for the example of flat() and map() i used the same method. But if you want too you can flat the array first.



Try it in JSFiddler, Chrome, it does not work, it is wrong !!

I've not tested with your array. You're right. Thanks for your comment.

Sorry, but NOW it's incorrect - it was correct before. That's beacuse the flat part in flatMap() works differently, than .flat(1) alone, it only works for [[1], [2]], but not for [[1, 2]].

[[1, 2], 3, 4].flatMap(x => [x * 2])
// [NaN, 6, 8]

[[1, 2], 3, 4].map(x => [x * 2]).flat(1)
// [NaN, 6, 8]

See? flatMap will put the NaN there as well, try it for yourself.

I'd say it's either a bug in the implementation or on MDN description:

The flatMap() method first maps each element using a mapping function, then flattens the result into a new array. It is identical to a map() followed by a flat() of depth 1, but flatMap() is often quite useful, as merging both into one method is slightly more efficient.

and later:

The flatMap method is identical to a map followed by a call to flat of depth 1.

Example on MDN:

let arr1 = [1, 2, 3, 4];

arr1.map(x => [x * 2]); 
// [[2], [4], [6], [8]]

arr1.flatMap(x => [x * 2]);
// [2, 4, 6, 8]

// only one level is flattened
arr1.flatMap(x => [[x * 2]]);
// [[2], [4], [6], [8]]

Which translates to this one-liner:

[1, 2, 3, 4].map(x => [x * 2]).flat(1);
// [2, 4, 6, 8]

and not the other way around:

[1, 2, 3, 4].flat(1).map(x => [x * 2]);
// [[2], [4], [6], [8]]

Greatly appreciate your effort for creating this list. It allowed me to get a stronger grasp on the language.

I would like to mention that during my research of these methods you've brought to all of our attention, I found that the flat() method takes an argument for the depth, so while you are correct that myArr.flat() will default to a depth of one, it's also possible to specify larger values, and even include an infinite option.

For example (stolen directly from the MDN web docs):

var arr3 = [1, 2, [3, 4, [5, 6]]];
arr3.flat(2); // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

var arr4 = [1, 2, [3, 4, [5, 6, [7, 8, [9, 10]]]]];
arr4.flat(Infinity); // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

Awesome post, thank you :). Just a curious question (junior dev), should we avoid using forEach() because it'll mutate the data?


forEach() is not bad, it's not like DON'T USE IT. But it depends on the use case.
If you tend to functional programming, immutability and all that kind of stuff, you should use map() more often than forEach().

forEach is preferable when you're planning to do something like logging out your data or save the data to a database. But don't change your data with forEach.
Instead, use map() when you plan to change or alternate your data. You can even use filter(), sort(), reduce() etc. in conjunction with map(). You can still do the same thing with forEach(), but it's preferable to use map() because it manipulates your data in an immutable way.
Some folks also say that map() is faster than forEach() regarding performance.
However, in the end, It depends on what you’re trying to accomplish.


Awesome, thank you for the detailed response :)


Love it, please provide a place where we can go to practice all these skills.


I'm glad you like it. Maybe I'll create a github repo for that.


Appreciate it or you can just edit it and point a known resource to practice each.


Some note towards C# people who look at this and think it's the same as LINQ. It is not, as most of these methods create a new array as a result. Usually it doesn't matter as much, but consider what happens if the array is very large and you first map it to some complex and heavy calculation and only then you filter it. It may seem obvious, but only if you actually think about it, which to my shame I only did recently.

Also, shameless plus for my own library that uses ES6 iterators/generators to emulate LINQ in Javascript: siderite.dev/blog/linq-in-javascri... ;)



The output for 13 (includes) is wrong (copy/paste demon :)).


Sorry, It's just a mistyping. Now it's good :)
Thanks again.


If I had $10 for each time something like that happened to me, I could buy my own country! :D


I consider myself a pretty awesome JavaScript developer and often express that in my interaction with others but I honestly had never heard of Array.some().


It's a very handy method. It happens to everyone, we can't know everything :)


Thanks for this post , it was very useful.


I'm glad you like it. Thanks for your comment


The only difference between some() and includes() is the parameter (the former is a function, the latter an element) or Did I miss something?


Yes, they are kinda similar. They both check if a given element exists in the array or not. They both return true or false as output.

includes() takes the element to check and optionally the starting index.

some() takes a function as a parameter.


I absolutely love this post. Thank you ❤️


I'm glad you like it. Thanks for reading it


Hi Ibrahim, thanks for the article. One thing to note is that the implementation for sort is correct but the comments are wrong.


Thanks for reading it. Now it's correct


I enjoyed every bit of this, simple clear examples. Now depends on how we implement them

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