Working in distributed systems with microsoeervices, the problem is to find the causing service first. Normally I try to track where the error happens and follow the ID of the log message of the original service where the event was emitted. Then I'll try to mock the data and debug the critical point. Always going up in the stack trace to find the root cause.
Since I work with Node.js I always use ndb for debugging:
We're a place where coders share, stay up-to-date and grow their careers.
We strive for transparency and don't collect excess data.