You won't be able to mount your local machine's filesystems remotely (unless you set that up separately), but the whole point of the X system is to be able to run GUI applications remotely while passing their interface back to your local machine.
Once you have an X server running (as explained in this article), if you use SSH, your SSH client should be able to handle passing back the interface automatically. (Usually referred to as X-Forwarding.)
Otherwise you'll have to tinker with firewalls and manually configuring the network connection, and it's somewhat less secure.
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