Very real story and actually not only when you start your first job - for me partially I get this mess in my head every time I change project.
Currently very often you get a mentor (someone from your team) who is supposed to help you at the beginning. I think instead of showing you project documentation and some good tech tutorial someone should give you this kind of speech or story to read just to make you realize that this is normal to feel like this at the beginning - but it gets better :)
Yep, actual programming is just the tip of the iceberg :)
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