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Poulami Chakraborty
Poulami Chakraborty

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Back to JS Basics - Types & Coercion

These are my notes as I go back & revisit the nitty gritties of JS core concepts.

JavaScript Data Types

A value in JavaScript is always of a certain type (ex:number) - data type is the attribute which determines the behavior of a particular value and how it is treated (ex: 1 vs "1"). This also effects how different operators work with the value.

JavaScript is a dynamic language or loosely typed therefore a variable doesn’t associate with any type - its value does. That means the same variable may be reassigned a new value of a different type.

var x = 5; //x is a number
x = "Hello world" //x is now a string

There are basically 9 types of data types in JS with

  • 6 primitives: number, string, boolean, undefined, bigInt, symbol. A primitive data value is a single simple data value with no additional properties and methods.
  • 2 structural: objects and functions. Object is a collection of properties, and a property is an association between a name (or key) and a value. A property's value can be a function, in which case the property is known as a method. Arrays, regular expressions, date, etc. are all different types of objects.

    Functions are like a sub-type of objects.

  • 1 special kind of primitive: null. null is a special instance of primitive datatype which points intentionally to a nonexistent or invalid object or address.

Both null and undefined cannot hold any value.

This article covers primitive types (& parts of null)

Null vs Undefined

undefined means a variable has been declared but has not yet been assigned a value. (An **undeclared* var, by contrast, is one that hasn't been declared yet, and will return a reference error*).

null represents null, empty, or non-existent reference. It is a blank object reference.

Peculiarities of Number

  • Number ≠ Integer ( 1, 1.0, 1. are all valid 'number' in JS. That may be important when trying to invoke a number method)

       console.log(1.toPrecision( 6)) // Uncaught SyntaxError
       console.log(1..toPrecision( 6)) //4.00000

    Ideally, its better to assign value to variable and then access function on the var.

  • Floating point arithmetic is not always 100% accurate

       console.log(0.1 + 0.2) //0.30000000000000004
  • NaN(not a number) : Any mathematical operation in which both operands aren't numbers (or values that cannot be forced into number) results in an invalid number, giving the NaN value.

       console.log(5 - '123' ) // -118
       console.log(5 - '12 3' ) // NAN

    NaN is a very special value in that it's never equal to another NaN value.

       console.log(NaN == NaN) //false

Type Conversions & Coercions

JS variables can be can be converted to a different data type by:

  1. Use of a JavaScript function - we explicity convert to a different type. (Ex: String(123))
  2. Automatic or implicit conversion of values - JS coerces an incorrect type to the expected data type. (Ex: 2*"2")

There are 3 possible conversions:

  • To String
  • To Number
  • To Boolean

1. To String

String() or toString() function can be used to explicitly convert to string. All primitives are converted to string type as may be expected:

String(123)  '123'
String(true)  'true'
String(null)  'null'
String(undefined)  'undefined'

Implicit coercion is triggered by the binary + operator, when (atleast) one operand is a string

'a'+2 //a2

Note: String concatenation with + is not commutative. Ex: '$' + 4 + 5 will give '$45' but 4 + 5 + '$' will give '9$'

2. To Number

  • Mathematical operations results in implicit conversion to Number (except in case of + where it can result in conversion to string). It may not be a valid number - again NaN is also a sub-type of number!

       typeof(5 + true); //number
       typeof("6a"*"2"); //number
       typeof(5 - '12'); //number

    An empty string , empty array, becomes 0. true is 1, while false is 0.

  • In explicit conversions of strings, white-spaces from the start and end are removed.

Number(' 123 ') // 123
Number('12 3') // NaN
  • When (loosely) comparing values of different types, there is implicit conversion to numbers. We will visit comparisons shortly.

3. To Boolean

  • Values that are intuitively “empty”, like 0, an empty string, null, undefined, and , become false. Everything else is true - including "0"
  • If statements: Logical operators (|| and &&) do not return boolean values.

       a||0; [//a](//a) 

    When used within the condition of an if statement, there is an implicit coercion to boolean type.

Comparisons (Loose '==' vs Strict '===' equality)

As mentioned earlier, == uses type coercion to numbers if required.

A strict equality operator === checks the equality without type conversion. If two values are of different types, then a === b immediately returns false without an attempt to convert them.

console.log('0' == 0) //true
console.log('0' == false); //true
console.log('0' === false); //false

Number(null) & Number(undefined) are 0 & NaN respectively - so, they aren't equal.

null==undefined // false


You-Dont-Know-JS/types & grammar

MDN: JavaScript data types and data structures

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