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Gemahar Rafi
Gemahar Rafi

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var, let and const in JavaScript - Decoded...

While I was getting the hang of the fundamentals of JavaScript, I came across three ways of declaring a variable, that is by var, let and const statements. So in this piece, I have tried to summarize all my findings to differentiate each of the declaration statements.

To really get a grip on the differences between var, let and const we must apprehend the following four concepts:

  • Variable declaration
  • Variable initialization
  • Scope
  • Hoisting

Variable declaration

Variable declaration is the process of introducing a new identifier into our program; to be specific to our scope(I will talk about scopes later). In JavaScript, identifiers are by default given a value of undefined when declared with var keyword(this is automatically done by the interpreter).

var foo; // declaration
console.log(foo); // logs-->undefined
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Variable initialization

Variable initialization is the process of assigning values to the identifier initially, so when we declare a binding with var keyword the interpreter automatically initializes it to undefined.

var foo; //declaration
console.log(foo); // logs -->undefined

foo = "something"; // Initialization
console.log(foo); // logs -->something
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The scope of a variable actually defines the context in which the variables and functions are accessible and can be referenced in a program. The scope defines the visibility and lifetime of variables and parameters. If a variable is not "in the current scope," then it is unavailable for use. Scopes can also be layered in a hierarchy, so that child scopes have access to parent scopes, but not vice versa.

Basically, there are two types of scoping

  • function scope
  • block scope

function scope:

Variables declared inside a function are scoped to the function and all the subsequent nested function; irrespective of blocks;

function foo() {

  if(true) {
    var v = "var inside the if block";
    console.log(v);  //logs -->var inside the if block
  v = "var outside the if block";
  console.log(v);  //logs -->var outside the if block

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block scope

Variables declared inside a block are scoped only to its block and all the subsequent nested blocks but not outside of the block not even in the same function; blocks here include if...else blocks or looping blocks.

function bar() {

  if(true) {
    let l = "let inside the if block";
    console.log(l);  //logs -->let inside the if block

console.log(l); // Uncaught Reference Error: l is not defined

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MDN defines Hoisting as :

"Hoisting is a term you will not find used in any normative specification prose prior to ES2015 Language Specification. Hoisting was thought up as a general way of thinking about how execution contexts (specifically the creation and execution phases) work in JavaScript. However, the concept can be a little confusing at first.

Conceptually, for example, a strict definition of hoisting suggests that variable and function declarations are physically moved to the top of your code, but this is not in fact what happens. Instead, the variable and function declarations are put into memory during the compile phase, but stay exactly where you typed them in your code."

console.log(foo); //logs -->undefined 

//it does not throw an error but logs -->undefined;
//this happens because of hoisting

var foo = "something"; //Initialization
console.log(foo); //logs -->something
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For the above code, how JS interpreter evaluation can be simplified as :

var foo; // Hoisted declaration of 'foo'

console.log(foo); logs -->undefined;
foo = "something";
console.log(foo); //logs -->something
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The var statement declares a variable, optionally initializing it to a value. Any variable declared with var statement is function scoped and also identifies declared with var keywords are hoisted and initialized with undefined

console.log(foo); //logs -->undefined
var foo;

//the above code does not throw an error because of hoisting;
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The let statement declares a local variable. Any variable declared with let statement is block scoped. The identifies declared with let keywords are hoisted and are not initialized

let foo;
console.log(foo); // Uncaught Reference Error: l is not defined

//the above code throws an error because identifiers declared with let keywords are not initialized;
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let bindings are created at the top of the (block) scope containing the declaration, commonly referred to as "hoisting". Unlike variables declared with var, which will start with the value undefined, let variables are not initialized until their definition is evaluated. Accessing the variable before the initialization results in a Reference Error.


The const statement declares a local variable very much like the let statement but it has one added property and that is; they cannot be reassigned; meaning once the const binding is initialized it cannot be reassigned with any other value.

Due to the above reason, a const binding will always have to be initialized when declared otherwise it throws an error.

const foo = "something";
foo = "other thing"; // Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.    

const bar; //Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

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One thing to observe here is that when we use const binding to an object, the object itself cannot be changed and will continue to point at the same object, the contents of that object might change.

const score = {visitors: 0, home: 0};

score.visitors = 1; // This is okay  
score = {visitors: 1, home: 1}; // Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.
// This isn't allowed
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One last fun fact:

Bindings that are declared in a function without a declaring keyword will become a global variable. Let me explain this with an example:

function funFact() {
  isGloballyAvailable = true;

console.log(isGloballyAvailable); // logs true
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To understand this we must go back to our hoisting concept, usually what happens is that whenever we initialize a variable in our code the interpreter goes and searches the hoisted variables and then assigns or reassigns the value of the variable, but when the interpreter cannot find the variable in the function it goes and searches in its parent function's hoisted variables and this process repeats until the global scope;

In our case the interpreter will not find our 'isGloballyAvailable' binding even in the global scope so, the interpreter automatically adds the variable to the global scope.

This is an extremely dangerous process and must be avoided at all cost; so keep in mind that we must not declare a binding without the: var, let or const keyword anywhere in our code.

So when should we use var, let or const ?

ES2015 (ES6) introduced let and const, why would the JavaScript designers introduce them? maybe to fix some issue with var or maybe for better readability... right?

One major issue with var is that it allows for re-declarations in code, which does not throw errors, which can create unintended side-effects in your code.

The popular and as well as my opinion is that :

We should always prefer const if the value assigned to our variable is not going to change, this tells the future developers that the identifier has a constant value.
On the other hand use let if the identifier needs to change its value later on, but I do not see a use case in which we should use var.

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