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Ngonidzashe Nzenze
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

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How to use Google Colab to package KivyMD applications with buildozer.

Let's face it, packaging your kivy application for android can be pretty rough. First you create the app, then you install buildozer only to realize that python-for-android doesn't even run on windows! Now you're looking into installing a virtual Linux distribution. If you already use Linux, well lucky you, but if not, you are probably pounding your keyboard in frustration.

Is there a better way to do it? The answer is yes. In this article I'm going to show you how to package an application for android using Google Colab.

First thing's first, let's code up our application. I assume you already have kivy and kivymd installed in a virtual environment.

Create two files:

  • main.py
  • main.kv

Inside main.py, add the following code:

from kivymd.app import MDApp
from kivymd.uix.list import OneLineIconListItem, IconLeftWidget

class MainApp(MDApp):
    def build(self):
        self.theme_cls.primary_palette = "Purple"

    def add_item(self, text):
        new_list_item = OneLineIconListItem(text=text)
        new_list_item.add_widget(
            IconLeftWidget(icon = "language-python")
            )
        self.root.ids.listcontainer.add_widget(new_list_item)
        self.root.ids.listinput.text = ''


if __name__ == "__main__":
    app = MainApp()
    app.run()
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Inside main.kv add the following lines:

MDBoxLayout:
    orientation: 'vertical'
    id: box
    MDTopAppBar:
        title: 'SampleApp'
        pos_hint: {'top': 1}

    MDTextField:
        id: listinput
        hint_text: 'Add Item'
        mode: 'rectangle'
        size_hint_x: .9
        pos_hint: {'center_x': .5} 
        text_validate_unfocus: False
        on_text_validate: app.add_item(listinput.text)

    ScrollView:
        MDList:
            id: listcontainer

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This is a simple application that gets text from the user and creates a list item and adds it to the list.

When we run our application, it looks like this:

Sample App

Now for packaging!📦

Open google colab on your web browser and create a new notebook or you can use my notebook.

Now create a cell and run the following lines:

!sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
!sudo apt-get update
!sudo apt-get install -y build-essential ccache git zlib1g-dev python3 python3-dev libncurses5:i386 libstdc++6:i386 zlib1g:i386 openjdk-8-jdk unzip ant ccache autoconf libtool libssl-dev
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Luckily for you, the developers of kivymd decided to make the process easier so we can install buildozer dependencies in one fell swoop. Create a cell in your notebook and add the following lines and execute:

# git clone, for working on buildozer
!git clone https://github.com/kivy/buildozer
%cd buildozer
!python setup.py build
!pip install -e .
%cd ..
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And now, everything is ready for the packaging process.

Upload your files to colab by clicking on the files icon and then right clicking and clicking upload.(Uuuh what?😫)

After the files have been uploaded, run the following command:

!buildozer init

This will create a file named buildozer.spec. Double click the file to edit it. You can change the application name and the package name. I changed mine as follows:

Changing app configs

Next, scroll down to the requirements and change them as follows:

requirements = python3, kivy==2.1.0, kivymd==1.1.1, sdl2_ttf==2.0.15, pillow
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Requirements sample

Note: If your application requires special permissions such as internet or storage, scroll down to android.permissions:
See permissions

Uncomment the android.permissions line and add the permissions. For a full list of all the available permissions, check out this link.

Now to package our application. Run the following command:

!buildozer -v android debug

This process can take up to 20 minutes so you might need a little bit of patience. In the mean time you could skip to the bonus section below or watch an episode of my hero academia(I won't judge😉).

After successful execution, the apk file is saved in the bin folder:

Saved in the bin

Download the apk, transfer it over to your android device and install it!

Download apk

The application works!👏

Full Code is available HERE.

Bonus section(Not really)

Debugging our application.

Packaging applications this way is faster than having to go through installing all the requirements on your PC but this does have a draw back. How do you debug the application? Imagine successfully installing the application and trying to run it only for it to crash. How do you know what the problem is? You can't run buildozer -v android deploy run logcat which displays the logs so that you can search through them to identify errors. You can't do that on colab but you can if you're on Linux(perhaps your should just switch to linux😁).

This is where adb comes in. Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a versatile command-line tool that lets you communicate with a device. You can get more information about it here but for now, we are going to be making use of adb platform tools. Download them here.

download adb

This will download a zipped file. Unzip it then copy the apk that we just made and paste it inside the unzipped folder. The selected item is the apk file in the image below:

Copy the apk

Connect your device, make sure usb debugging is enabled. Now open a command prompt terminal and navigate to the folder containing the adb files we extracted:

Alt Text

Run adb install name-of-the-app.apk

This will install the application on your device! You can open the application and try it out. To view the application log, run the following command in the terminal:

adb logcat

Now you can see the application log. If any error occurs while running the application, you'll probably find the details in the log, but be warned, it can be like looking for a needle in a haystack!

If you want to learn more about adb and it's commands check out this link.

And that just about wraps it up. I hope you found this article helpful. If you're facing any challenges don't hesitate to reach out in the comments section.

Top comments (30)

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rhandel profile image
RAH • Edited

NN,
Completed the build but had to change the version of Cython from 0.29.19 to 0.29.21 to complete compile.
ERROR: pip's dependency resolver does not currently take into account all the packages that are installed. This behaviour is the source of the following dependency conflicts.
tables 3.8.0 requires cython>=0.29.21, but you have cython 0.29.19 which is incompatible.

!pip install --upgrade Cython==0.29.21 virtualenv

I suspect that's why the resulting APK builds but bombs after the splash screen.
Do you have any suggestions?

RAHRAH

!sudo apt update
!sudo apt install -y git zip unzip openjdk-17-jdk python3-pip autoconf libtool pkg-config zlib1g-dev libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev libtinfo5 cmake libffi-dev libssl-dev
!pip install --upgrade Cython==0.29.21 virtualenv
!git clone https://github.com/kivy/buildozer
%cd buildozer
!python setup.py build
!pip install -e .
%cd ..
!buildozer -v android debug
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# (str) Title of your application
#RAH#
title = Nzeneie test

# (str) Package name
#RAH#
package.name = NzenzieTest
# (str) Application versioning (method 1)
#RAH#
version = 0.100
# (list) Application requirements
# comma separated e.g. requirements = sqlite3,kivy
#RAH#
requirements = python3,kivy==2.1.0,https://github.com/kivymd/KivyMD/archive/master.zip,sdl2_ttf==2.0.15,pillow

# (int) Target Android API, should be as high as possible.
#RAH#
android.api = 31
# (bool) If True, then automatically accept SDK license
# agreements. This is intended for automation only. If set to False,
# the default, you will be shown the license when first running
# buildozer.
#RAH#
# android.accept_sdk_license = False
android.accept_sdk_license = True

# (list) The Android archs to build for, choices: armeabi-v7a, arm64-v8a, x86, x86_64
# In past, was `android.arch` as we weren't supporting builds for multiple archs at the same time.
#RAH#
android.archs = arm64-v8a
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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hi,

So a few things have changed since I've written the article. I have updated it. You can fix the issues you are facing by changing the requirements to: requirements = python3, kivy==2.1.0, kivymd==1.1.1, sdl2_ttf==2.0.15, pillow

And for installing the initial build packages, instead of using the commands with Cython, use the following:

!sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
!sudo apt-get update
!sudo apt-get install -y build-essential ccache git zlib1g-dev python3 python3-dev libncurses5:i386 libstdc++6:i386 zlib1g:i386 openjdk-8-jdk unzip ant ccache autoconf libtool libssl-dev
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This should fix the errors your were encountering. Hope that helps!

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kingdonny profile image
kingdonny • Edited

i have been trying to follow your tutorial on the above project and there
I have tried to follow the required steps from the tutorial including this update but google colab is not creating the apk file as the bin folder is empty.

Please help

Thread Thread
 
ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hey. Are you getting any errors during execution?

Thread Thread
 
kingdonny profile image
kingdonny • Edited

No errors but it creates an empty bin folder

Thread Thread
 
kingdonny profile image
kingdonny

have you tried running the code from your end again?

Thread Thread
 
ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze • Edited

I can't run it at the moment but could you try this notebook.

Thread Thread
 
kingdonny profile image
kingdonny

thank you very much the apk file was created but the application doesn't on my mobile after installation. i tries to open then shuts down

Thread Thread
 
ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Could you try installing your app with adb, then running adb logcat, before opening it. The error should be printed within the console.

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pythonkivyuser profile image
PythonKivyuser

Hi, I have a question about an error which appears while running the App on my Android Phone (Huawei P8lite).
The adb logcat log shows me the two Errors [ E libEGL : validate_display:255 error 3008 (EGL_BAD_DISPLAY) ] and [ ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'PIL' ] and than crashes.

Do you have an idea how to solve this Error?

I have already done some research and tried to get some information but PIL is dead and the requirement for KivyMD is Pillow, like the devolopers published in Github.

I would appreciate your help and thank you in advance.
If you need some logs to look at I will provide it to you.

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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hello. Did you try adding pillow to the requirements in the buildozer.spec file?

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pythonkivyuser profile image
PythonKivyuser

I've tried it with
[requirements = kivy==2.0.0, github.com/kivymd/KivyMD/archive/m...]
as the developers published it on Github(github.com/kivymd/KivyMD)
and with
[requirements = python3, kivy==2.0.0, kivymd==0.104.2, sdl2_ttf == 2.0.15, pillow]

In both cases the adb logcat log showed me the two Errors.
Have i forgotten something?

Thread Thread
 
ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Have you tried running:

buildozer android clean

between the changes? If not, try running it and using the following requirements:

requirements = python3,kivy==2.0.0,github.com/kivymd/KivyMD/archive/m..., sdl2_ttf==2.0.15,pillow

If you have tried this and still gotten the error, could you please provide the logs.
I'm pretty sure that adding pillow to the requirements was supposed to work.

Thread Thread
 
pythonkivyuser profile image
PythonKivyuser

I've tried running buildozer with your mentioned requirements and it worked finally. Thank you very much for taking your time and for your help. 🥳
I'm so happy that the "compilation" is working.

A new small problem accoured with a more advanced kivy code. The code runs at the PC but not on my phone. [ TypeError: 'int' object is not iterable ]

Is this a typical error? And is the KivyMD/Python code the problem?

Thread Thread
 
ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Awesome, I'm glad that worked.

I think the TypeError is probably a bug in your code. It means somewhere your code is trying to iterate over an int object. Try to look through your code for possible causes if the log is not returning the line causing the error.

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jhosuaromero30 profile image
jhosua romero

Hey, could you help me with my app?, I've been trying several ways in builderdozer and I still can't get the app to work, it closes when I open it, I use kivymd, pillow in the requirements.

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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hello.
Are you developing the application described in this article or another?

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jhosuaromero30 profile image
jhosua romero

Hey, could you help me with my app?, I've been trying several ways in builderdozer and I still can't get the app to work, it closes when I open it, I use kivymd, pillow in the requirements.

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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Are there no errors appearing in the log?

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vjrdnti profile image
vjrdnti

hello, im making an app with pandas, kivymd. colab just doesnt work, on research i found i have to edit spec file to p4a.branch=develop but it still doesnt work, i did put kivymd and pandas in requirements with their versions, please help i have put a lot of efforts in this app and its frustrating to see it crash after presplash

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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hi.

Did you try to locate the error with adb logcat?

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islamimtiaz profile image
IslamImtiaz

Greetings, I am currently attempting to transform my python code into an APK, however, after converting it and installing the file, it unfortunately crashes right after the kivy logo appears. I am using google collab to convert my code into APK.
Spec file
Image description

main.py

from kivymd.uix.screen import MDScreen
from kivymd.app import MDApp
from kivy.uix.image import Image
from kivymd.uix.button import MDFillRoundFlatButton
from kivymd.uix.textfield import MDTextField
from kivymd.uix.label import MDLabel
from kivymd.uix.toolbar import MDTopAppBar
from kivymd.uix.dialog import MDDialog

class ConverterApp(MDApp):

    def flip(self):
        if self.state == 0:
            self.state = 1
            self.toolbar.title = 'CGPA calculator'
            self.GP.hint_text = 'Enter your current GPA'
            self.CH.hint_text = 'Enter your previous GPA'
        else:
            self.state = 0
            self.toolbar.title = 'GPA calculator'
            self.GP.hint_text = 'Enter your GP'
            self.CH.hint_text = 'Enter subject CH'

    def gpa(self, obj):
        gp_text = self.GP.text.strip()
        ch_text = self.CH.text.strip()
        # Check if GP and CH fields are not empty
        if not gp_text or not ch_text:
            # Show an error when GP and CH fields are empty
            dialog = MDDialog(title='Error',text='Both GP and CH fields are required',size_hint=(0.7, 1))
            dialog.open()
            return
        # Check if entered data is valid
        try:
            gp_values = [float(gp) for gp in gp_text.split(',')]
            ch_values = [float(ch) for ch in ch_text.split(',')]
        except ValueError:
            # Show an error when non-numeric value is entered
            dialog = MDDialog(title='Error',text='Invalid input! Please enter comma-separated numbers only',size_hint=(0.7, 1))
            dialog.open()
            return
        # Calculate GPA or CGPA
        if self.state == 0:
            x = sum(gp_values)
            y = sum(ch_values)
            if y == 0:
                # Show an error
                dialog = MDDialog(title='Error',text='Zero division error',size_hint=(0.7, 1))
                dialog.open()
            else:    
                c = x / y
                self.label1.text = str(c)
                self.label.text = "Your GPA is: "
        else:
            x = sum(gp_values)
            len1 = len(gp_values)
            y = sum(ch_values)
            len2 = len(ch_values)
            b = len1 + len2
            z = (x + y) / b
            self.label1.text = str(z)
            self.label.text = 'Your CGPA is: '

    def build(self):
        self.state = 0
        screen = MDScreen()
        # Top toolbar
        self.toolbar = MDTopAppBar(title="GPA Calculator")
        self.toolbar.pos_hint = {'top':1}
        self.toolbar.right_action_items = [['rotate-3d-variant', lambda x: self.flip()]]
        screen.add_widget(self.toolbar)
        # Logo
        screen.add_widget(Image(source ='gpr.png',size_hint=(0.8,1),pos_hint ={'center_x':0.5,'center_y':0.7}))
        # Collect user input
        self.GP = MDTextField(hint_text='Enter your GP',halign='center',size_hint=(0.8,1),pos_hint ={'center_x':0.5,'center_y':0.48},font_size=22)
        screen.add_widget(self.GP)
        self.CH = MDTextField(hint_text='Enter your CH',halign='center',size_hint=(0.8,1),pos_hint ={'center_x':0.5,'center_y':0.4},font_size=22)
        screen.add_widget(self.CH)
        # Secondary + Primary Label
        self.label = MDLabel(halign='center',pos_hint ={'center_x':0.5,'center_y':0.32},theme_text_color='Secondary')
        self.label1 = MDLabel(halign='center',pos_hint ={'center_x':0.5,'center_y':0.28},theme_text_color='Primary',font_style='H5')
        screen.add_widget(self.label)
        screen.add_widget(self.label1)
        # Convert Button
        self.button= MDFillRoundFlatButton(text='Result',font_size='17',pos_hint ={'center_x':0.5,'center_y':0.15})
        self.button.bind(on_press = self.gpa)
        screen.add_widget(self.button)

        return screen

ConverterApp().run()
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please help me bro

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jaumeebusquets profile image
Info Comment hidden by post author - thread only accessible via permalink
Jaumee

Hi, I am creating an android app using kivy and buildozer to manage the TelloEDU drone and everything is working fine until im trying to get the image. On my computer, when i ask for get_frame_read().frame (works with opencv VideoCapture) after a couple seconds and some:

[h264 @ 00000272a264c700] non-existing PPS 0 referenced
[h264 @ 00000272a264c700] non-existing PPS 0 referenced
[h264 @ 00000272a264c700] decode_slice_header error
[h264 @ 00000272a264c700] no frame!

The image start flowing.

I think that is the problem then on my android. Just at the moment that I am asking for the image, it crashes with "A/libc: Fatal signal 7 (SIGBUS), code 1 (BUS_ADRALN)".

That is the partcode to upload the frames:

from kivy.app import App
from kivy.lang import Builder
from kivy.uix.screenmanager import Screen, ScreenManager
from tellopy import tello
import cv2
from kivy.clock import Clock

me = tello.Tello()

class WindowManager(ScreenManager):
pass

class ControlWindow(Screen):

def on_enter(self, *args):
    me.connect()
    me.streamon()
    Clock.schedule_interval(self.video, 0.001)

def video(self, dt):
    img = me.get_frame_read().frame
    cv2.imwrite("imagen.jpg", img)
    self.ids.video.source = "imagen.jpg"
    self.ids.video.reload()
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kv = Builder.load_file("my.kv")

class MyApp(App):
def build(self):
self.Title = "Control Básico Tello EDU"
return kv

if name == 'main':
MyApp().run()

The kv file is:

WindowManager:
ControlWindow:
:
Image:
id: video
source: "imagen.jpg"

The buildozer .spec file is:

[app]

(str) Title of your application

title = Tello EDU Basic Control

(str) Package name

package.name = TelloEDUBasicControl

(str) Package domain (needed for android/ios packaging)

package.domain = org.test.TelloEDUBasicControl

(str) Source code where the main.py live

source.dir = .

(list) Source files to include (let empty to include all the files)

source.include_exts = py,png,jpg,kv,atlas,txt

(list) List of inclusions using pattern matching

source.include_patterns = assets/,images/.png

(list) Source files to exclude (let empty to not exclude anything)

source.exclude_exts = spec

(list) List of directory to exclude (let empty to not exclude anything)

source.exclude_dirs = tests, bin

(list) List of exclusions using pattern matching

source.exclude_patterns = license,images//.jpg

(str) Application versioning (method 1)

version = 0.1

(str) Application versioning (method 2)

version.regex = version = '"['"]

version.filename = %(source.dir)s/main.py

(list) Application requirements

comma separated e.g. requirements = sqlite3,kivy

requirements = python3,kivy,tellopy,opencv,numpy

(str) Custom source folders for requirements

Sets custom source for any requirements with recipes

requirements.source.kivy = ../../kivy

(list) Garden requirements

garden_requirements =

(str) Presplash of the application

presplash.filename = %(source.dir)s/data/presplash.png

(str) Icon of the application

icon.filename = %(source.dir)s/data/icon.png

(str) Supported orientation (one of landscape, sensorLandscape, portrait or all)

orientation = landscape

(list) List of service to declare

services = NAME:ENTRYPOINT_TO_PY,NAME2:ENTRYPOINT2_TO_PY

OSX Specific

author = © Copyright Info

change the major version of python used by the app

osx.python_version = 3

Kivy version to use

osx.kivy_version = 1.9.1

Android specific

(bool) Indicate if the application should be fullscreen or not

fullscreen = 0

(string) Presplash background color (for new android toolchain)

Supported formats are: #RRGGBB #AARRGGBB or one of the following names:

red, blue, green, black, white, gray, cyan, magenta, yellow, lightgray,

darkgray, grey, lightgrey, darkgrey, aqua, fuchsia, lime, maroon, navy,

olive, purple, silver, teal.

android.presplash_color = #FFFFFF

(list) Permissions

android.permissions = INTERNET, ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE, WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE, READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE, MANAGE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE

(int) Target Android API, should be as high as possible.

android.api = 31

(int) Minimum API your APK will support.

android.minapi = 21

(int) Android SDK version to use

android.sdk = 30

(str) Android NDK version to use

android.ndk = 23b

(int) Android NDK API to use. This is the minimum API your app will support, it should usually match android.minapi.

android.ndk_api = 21

(bool) Use --private data storage (True) or --dir public storage (False)

android.private_storage = True

(str) Android NDK directory (if empty, it will be automatically downloaded.)

android.ndk_path =

(str) Android SDK directory (if empty, it will be automatically downloaded.)

android.sdk_path =

(str) ANT directory (if empty, it will be automatically downloaded.)

android.ant_path =

(bool) If True, then skip trying to update the Android sdk

This can be useful to avoid excess Internet downloads or save time

when an update is due and you just want to test/build your package

android.skip_update = False

(bool) If True, then automatically accept SDK license

agreements. This is intended for automation only. If set to False,

the default, you will be shown the license when first running

buildozer.

android.accept_sdk_license = False

(str) Android entry point, default is ok for Kivy-based app

android.entrypoint = org.renpy.android.PythonActivity

(str) Android app theme, default is ok for Kivy-based app

android.apptheme = "@android:style/Theme.NoTitleBar"

(list) Pattern to whitelist for the whole project

android.whitelist =

(str) Path to a custom whitelist file

android.whitelist_src =

(str) Path to a custom blacklist file

android.blacklist_src =

(list) List of Java .jar files to add to the libs so that pyjnius can access

their classes. Don't add jars that you do not need, since extra jars can slow

down the build process. Allows wildcards matching, for example:

OUYA-ODK/libs/*.jar

android.add_jars = foo.jar,bar.jar,path/to/more/*.jar

(list) List of Java files to add to the android project (can be java or a

directory containing the files)

android.add_src =

(list) Android AAR archives to add (currently works only with sdl2_gradle

bootstrap)

android.add_aars =

(list) Gradle dependencies to add (currently works only with sdl2_gradle

bootstrap)

android.gradle_dependencies =

(list) add java compile options

this can for example be necessary when importing certain java libraries using the 'android.gradle_dependencies' option

see developer.android.com/studio/write... for further information

android.add_compile_options = "sourceCompatibility = 1.8", "targetCompatibility = 1.8"

(list) Gradle repositories to add {can be necessary for some android.gradle_dependencies}

please enclose in double quotes

e.g. android.gradle_repositories = "maven { url 'kotlin.bintray.com/ktor' }"

android.add_gradle_repositories =

(list) packaging options to add

see google.github.io/android-gradle-ds...

can be necessary to solve conflicts in gradle_dependencies

please enclose in double quotes

e.g. android.add_packaging_options = "exclude 'META-INF/common.kotlin_module'", "exclude 'META-INF/*.kotlin_module'"

android.add_gradle_repositories =

(list) Java classes to add as activities to the manifest.

android.add_activities = com.example.ExampleActivity

(str) OUYA Console category. Should be one of GAME or APP

If you leave this blank, OUYA support will not be enabled

android.ouya.category = GAME

(str) Filename of OUYA Console icon. It must be a 732x412 png image.

android.ouya.icon.filename = %(source.dir)s/data/ouya_icon.png

(str) XML file to include as an intent filters in tag

android.manifest.intent_filters =

(str) launchMode to set for the main activity

android.manifest.launch_mode = standard

(list) Android additional libraries to copy into libs/armeabi

android.add_libs_armeabi = libs/android/*.so

android.add_libs_armeabi_v7a = libs/android-v7/*.so

android.add_libs_arm64_v8a = libs/android-v8/*.so

android.add_libs_x86 = libs/android-x86/*.so

android.add_libs_mips = libs/android-mips/*.so

(bool) Indicate whether the screen should stay on

Don't forget to add the WAKE_LOCK permission if you set this to True

android.wakelock = False

(list) Android application meta-data to set (key=value format)

android.meta_data =

(list) Android library project to add (will be added in the

project.properties automatically.)

android.library_references =

(list) Android shared libraries which will be added to AndroidManifest.xml using tag

android.uses_library =

(str) Android logcat filters to use

android.logcat_filters = *:S python:D

(bool) Copy library instead of making a libpymodules.so

android.copy_libs = 1

(str) The Android arch to build for, choices: armeabi-v7a, arm64-v8a, x86, x86_64

android.arch = armeabi-v7a

(int) overrides automatic versionCode computation (used in build.gradle)

this is not the same as app version and should only be edited if you know what you're doing

android.numeric_version = 1

Python for android (p4a) specific

(str) python-for-android fork to use, defaults to upstream (kivy)

p4a.fork = kivy

(str) python-for-android branch to use, defaults to master

p4a.branch = master

(str) python-for-android git clone directory (if empty, it will be automatically cloned from github)

p4a.source_dir =

(str) The directory in which python-for-android should look for your own build recipes (if any)

p4a.local_recipes =

(str) Filename to the hook for p4a

p4a.hook =

(str) Bootstrap to use for android builds

p4a.bootstrap = sdl2

(int) port number to specify an explicit --port= p4a argument (eg for bootstrap flask)

p4a.port =

iOS specific

(str) Path to a custom kivy-ios folder

ios.kivy_ios_dir = ../kivy-ios

Alternately, specify the URL and branch of a git checkout:

ios.kivy_ios_url = github.com/kivy/kivy-ios
ios.kivy_ios_branch = master

Another platform dependency: ios-deploy

Uncomment to use a custom checkout

ios.ios_deploy_dir = ../ios_deploy

Or specify URL and branch

ios.ios_deploy_url = github.com/phonegap/ios-deploy
ios.ios_deploy_branch = 1.7.0

(str) Name of the certificate to use for signing the debug version

Get a list of available identities: buildozer ios list_identities

ios.codesign.debug = "iPhone Developer: ()"

(str) Name of the certificate to use for signing the release version

ios.codesign.release = %(ios.codesign.debug)s

[buildozer]

(int) Log level (0 = error only, 1 = info, 2 = debug (with command output))

log_level = 2

(int) Display warning if buildozer is run as root (0 = False, 1 = True)

warn_on_root = 1

(str) Path to build artifact storage, absolute or relative to spec file

build_dir = ./.buildozer

(str) Path to build output (i.e. .apk, .ipa) storage

bin_dir = ./bin

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

List as sections

You can define all the "list" as [section:key].

Each line will be considered as a option to the list.

Let's take [app] / source.exclude_patterns.

Instead of doing:

[app]

source.exclude_patterns = license,data/audio/.wav,data/images/original/

This can be translated into:

[app:source.exclude_patterns]

license

data/audio/*.wav

data/images/original/*

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Profiles

You can extend section / key with a profile

For example, you want to deploy a demo version of your application without

HD content. You could first change the title to add "(demo)" in the name

and extend the excluded directories to remove the HD content.

[app@demo]

title = My Application (demo)

[app:source.exclude_patterns@demo]

images/hd/*

Then, invoke the command line with the "demo" profile:

buildozer --profile demo android debug

Do you know where is the problem?

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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hello.

Honestly I have no idea where the problem could be. I haven't worked with tello before but I'm probably guessing it could be something to do with cv2 or how the video is being loaded with get_frame_read. Check out this link which has a demo on using opencv with kivy, it might help.

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airan_250 profile image
Airan250

app open and close direct
I/python (32368): [Clang 12.0.8 (android.googlesource.com/toolchain... c935d99d
I/python (32368): [INFO ] [Python ] Interpreter at ""
I/python (32368): [INFO ] [KivyMD ] 1.1.0.dev0, git-Unknown, 2022-09-24 (installed at "/data/data/org.test.eiranstudio/files/app/python_bundle/site-packages/kivymd/init.pyc")
I/python (32368): [INFO ] [Factory ] 186 symbols loaded
I/python (32368): Traceback (most recent call last):
I/python (32368): File "/content/.buildozer/android/app/main.py", line 1, in
I/python (32368): File "/content/.buildozer/android/platform/build-arm64-v8a_armeabi-v7a/build/python-installs/EiranStudio/armeabi-v7a/kivymd/
init.py", line 66, in
I/python (32368): File "/content/.buildozer/android/platform/build-arm64-v8a_armeabi-v7a/build/python-installs/EiranStudio/armeabi-v7a/kivymd/font_definitions.py", line 10, in
I/python (32368): File "/content/.buildozer/android/platform/build-arm64-v8a_armeabi-v7a/build/python-installs/EiranStudio/armeabi-v7a/kivy/core/text/
init.py", line 85, in
I/python (32368): File "/content/.buildozer/android/platform/build-arm64-v8a_armeabi-v7a/build/python-installs/EiranStudio/armeabi-v7a/kivy/graphics/
init_.py", line 89, in
I/python (32368): ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'kivy.graphics.instructions'

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grimycan profile image
Vadim

I managed to create an apk using Coollaboratory and it works, but the Android device cannot install subsequent versions to the previous one, even if nothing changes in the code. How can I organize the apk update on the device?

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abren profile image
abren

Hi, I get this error: No module named 'kivy.graphics.instructions' Thank you for any suggestions

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aqulline profile image
aqulline

did you manage to solve the problem

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ngonidzashe profile image
Ngonidzashe Nzenze

Hello,

You can try changing the version of kivy in the buildozer spec file from kivy==2.0.0 to kivy==2.1.0

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kattaramana profile image
kattaRamana

Pandas does not work

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