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Rizqy Eka Putra
Rizqy Eka Putra

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Simple CRUD REST API With Lumen + MySQL + Eloquent ORM


Hello there ! I am Rep , Software Engineer in the making and currently a 3rd year Computer Engineering student ! In this post i am going to share a quick guide on creating a CRUD ( Create , Read , Update , Delete ) Rest API With Lumen , MySQL Database and also Eloquent ORM .

Why Lumen ?

When you are only intended to Create an API , you wont need lots of Laravel default Libraries / Dependencies , because the goals is only to output a plain data formatted with most probably JSON , therefore we'll use Lumen , a micro-framework which utilize laravel's best part , with smaller size and faster execution time too!

What should i know or have to follow this post?


Make sure you already installed :

  • PHP 7.2 or Higher
  • Composer
  • MySQL Server ( You can install it via XAMPP on Windows , or via your favorite Packet Manager on UN*X like system)
  • PHPMyAdmin ( You get this automatically via XAMPP , you can install it on linux via Packet Manager also)


Several things you need to know before following this post :

  • Basic Request / Response on Web
  • PHP ( Very , very , very mandatory )
  • A bit of Laravel Knowledge
  • SQL Knowledge (would be really helpful)

Configuring the Project

In this tutorial , we'll create a simple CRUD for a Product Entity , we'll name our project "product-rest-api" , please kindly remember that by the time this tutorial is being written , the latest release of Lumen and Laravel is 8.0 .

Creating The Project

Firstly , we'll have to create the project first , by executing this command :

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Once the project has successfuly built , you can change your directory to the project directory (product-rest-api) and run this command to start the server :

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You can test the endpoint via Postman or Your web browser by sending a GET request to the "/" route

Result :
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If you get the same response as shown on image above , it means that the project has built sucessfully and you're ready to move on to the next step.

Configuring The Database

We need a database to later save / hold the migrated table from lumen , therefore we'll need to create one in MySQL , i'll give the database name "product-rest" , and i'll do it via the terminal to speed up the process , you can also create it via PHPMyAdmin.

*Note : if you are using Windows and XAMPP , dont forget to turn on the MySQL Service and Apache (if you are going to use PHPMyAdmin) via the XAMPP Control Panel.
If you are using linux , start the mysql / mariadb service via your terminal

Creating The Database Via Terminal / CMD :

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Once you're done with the database , now open your favorite Code Editor and open your project folder . Once your project folder are loaded , open the .env file , and do the configuration for your project database (don't forget to stop the server running first)

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The Important part of the .env file configuration as shown above is to make sure you filled your Database Configuration correctly , configuration related to Database are those started with **DB_**.

One more step is done , the next step is to create the database migration or defining the database schema , while working with laravel , you could easily utilize the artisan's make:model with -m option to automatically generate a model and a migration , unfortunately this is not available in Lumen , therefore we'd have to create the migration first and later on , create the Model .

Create the product table migration with this command :

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Command above will create you a migration file which will be located on database/migrations , locate the create_products_table file and open it up.

Once you already opened it , we'll start on Creating the product schema , it'll just have some basics data like :

  • Name
  • Price
  • Category

Lets jump right into the code , inside the CreateProductsTable class , you will find a public function up() , we'll define our schema there , or to put simply , the function will looked like this :

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Once we already done with defining the schema , we would have to create a Model class named Product.php , but before we do that , keep in mind that Lumen dont have Facades nor Eloquent enabled by default , therefore we'll need to first turn it on by uncommenting these following lines located on bootstrap/app.php on line 26 and 28 respectively

Line to Uncomment

  • $app->withFacades();
  • $app->withEloquent();

Next thing is to create the Product.php file inside the app/Models directory , and fill it with these code :

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The protected $guarded = [] means that we'll allow the web app to fill datas to any column on the table.

The last configuration we'll have to do is to run the migration , it can be done by simply running this command below

php artisan migrate

Check your database , and see you'll get the product table with 4 columns containing id , name , price and category .

Building The Logic

Defining the routes

Our API will have 5 Endpoints , those are :

  • GET /product to get all products data
  • GET /product/{id} to get a product by its ID
  • POST /product to create new product
  • PUT /product/{id} to update a product base on its id
  • DELETE /product/{id} to delete a product base on its id

Before we create the routes , it'll be better to create the controller first and then create functions that will represents each action. In order to do so , we need to create a ProductController.php file first on the app/Http/Controllers directory

First , we'll need to use the Product Model inside this class and we'll also need to parse incoming request , therefore we'll add these lines of code:

use App\Models\Product;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;

And after that , we'll need to create a function that would return all Products data , to do so , we'll create a function named index , the controller will look pretty much like this :

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Next up, below the index function , we'll create a function called show , which will take up a parameter of id , and return a product based on it id :

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We're done showing products , now its time to create a new one with the create function , which will accept a parameter of $request with type Request :

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Fancy an update to your product? we'll create a function which will takes two parameter consist of $request with type Request and the product's id we're going to update :

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What will happen if the product is no longer produced ? it will get deleted from the product list , therefore the last function we are going to create is a delete function which will takes up a parameter of product id :

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The Full ProductController.php Code would look like this :

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Creating The Routes

We're done with all the logics , but how could we access all these logics , the answer is by binding the route to the controller's function .

Navigate to routes directory , and open up the web.php , we'll changed it , so it'll match the routes we have defined above before :

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That's it for the codes and logic stuff , next up we'll test the Routes , starting from creating the product first , you might realize that we dont have any product yet .

** Note : you could also use Seeder to Seed data into your database first **

Testing the EndPoints

Create Product

Create a POST request to localhost:8000/product via Postman , and fill the body section with raw option , and toggle the JSON Option , more or less like this :

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Create 2 or 3 Products so that we could see the difference between index and show function afterwards.

Show Products

Now open a new tab in postman, we'll send a GET request to localhost:8000/product which is binded to index() function and will return all products

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And turns out , it works , it gives us all of the products data.

Show Product by ID

In my products data , i have products with ID of 2 , 3 and 4 , you could check it from the previous response , and try to access only 1 product by sending a GET Request to localhost:8000/{id} in this case i'll try to get a product with id of 2 , so the request will be a GET to localhost:8000/2 :

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Yes ! it responded correctly by showing us only a data which id is 2 .

Update Product

To update a product , we'll have to send a PUT request, which will require request parameters , just like we did with Create Product request , and the id of product we're going to update , therefore it will be a PUT request to : localhost:8080/product/{id} this time i will update the previous data of ID 2 , and change the product price to $3000 , notice that you'll need to re-write the name and category data as well.

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And once again , it works perfectly , it send us back a json response with the product's updated data.

Delete a Product

Because i changed the price just recently , turns out people are started to grab the Laptops very quickly and it is now out of stock until a new version released .

So now we'd have to delete the product , by sending a DELETE request to localhost:8000/product/2

We'll also later validate this request by showing all products, because it should have been gone afterwards.

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And if we checked it by sending a GET request to /product , it returned :

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It has been verified that all of the routes are working properly , because it only responded with 2 items with ID of 3 and 4.

That's a Wrap

Thanks for you all who finally made it to the bottom and successfully created a REST API with Lumen , there's a lot of things you could improve from the current API , such as request validation etc.

And if you want to see the source code , feel free to fork it from my repository at :

Happy Coding !

Top comments (4)

anhtuta profile image
Tạ Anh Tú

Thanks for your tutorial, I'm a newbie in php and lumen, so I found you post is really helpful!

garubi profile image
Stefano Garuti

Thank you for your very detailed yet simple to follow tutorial!

abrandao profile image
Anderson Brandão

Thank you so much! I am just starting with Lumen today and you saved my day.

wahyusa profile image
Wahyu Syamsul A'lam

Thank you !! Hope you'll write another tutorials about database relation in Lumen