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Aju Chacko
Aju Chacko

Posted on

PHP8 (quick note)

Union types

Union types are a collection of two or more types which indicate that either one of those can be used.

void can never be part of a union type, since it indicates "no return value at all". Furthermore, nullable unions can be written using |null, or by using the existing ? notation:

public function foo(Foo|Bar $input): int|float;

public function foo(Foo|null $foo): void;

public function bar(?Bar $bar): void;

JIT

The JIT β€” just in time β€” compiler promises significant performance improvements, albeit not always within the context of web requests.

Attributes

Attributes, commonly known as annotations in other languages, offers a way to add meta data to classes, without having to parse docblocks.

<<Attribute>>
class ExampleAttribute
{
    public $value;

    public function __construct($value)
    {
        $this->value = $value;
    }
}

use App\Attributes\ExampleAttribute;

<<ExampleAttribute>>
class Foo
{
    <<ExampleAttribute>>
    public const FOO = 'foo';

    <<ExampleAttribute>>
    public $x;

    <<ExampleAttribute>>
    public function foo(<<ExampleAttribute>> $bar) { }
}

static return type

class Foo
{
    public function test(): static
    {
        return new static();
    }
}

mixed type

Note that mixed can also be used as a parameter or property type, not just as a return type.

Throw expression

throw from being a statement to being an expression,

$triggerError = fn () => throw new MyError();

$foo = $bar['offset'] ?? throw new OffsetDoesNotExist('offset');

Weak maps

a WeakMap implementation is added in PHP 8. WeakMaps hold references to objects, which don't prevent those objects from being garbage collected.

::class on objects

::class on objects, instead of having to use get_class() on them.

$foo = new Foo();

var_dump($foo::class);

Non-capturing catches

to catch an exception before PHP 8, you had to store it in a variable, regardless whether you used that variable or not. With non-capturing catches, you can omit the variable, so instead of this:

try {
    // Something goes wrong
} catch (MySpecialException $exception) {
    Log::error("Something went wrong");
}

try {
    // Something goes wrong
} catch (MySpecialException) {
    Log::error("Something went wrong");
}

Trailing comma in parameter lists

public function(
    string $parameterA,
    int $parameterB,
    Foo $objectfoo,
) {
    // …
}

Stringable interface

The Stringable interface can be used to type hint anything that is a string or implements __toString(). Furthermore, whenever a class implements __toString(), it automatically implements the interface behind the scenes and there's no need to manually implement it.


class Foo
{
    public function __toString(): string
    {
        return 'foo';
    }
}

function bar(Stringable $stringable) { /* … */ }

bar(new Foo());
bar('abc');

str_contains() function

if (str_contains('string with lots of words', 'words')) { /* … */ }

str_starts_with() and str_ends_with() functions

str_starts_with('haystack', 'hay'); // true
str_ends_with('haystack', 'stack'); // true

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