A couple of months ago, the new Kubernetes Gateway API graduated to beta.
Why do you need another API to handle external traffic when you have the stable Kubernetes Ingress API and dozens of implementations? What problems of the Ingress API does the new Gateway API solve? Does this mean the end of the Ingress API?
I will try to answer these questions in this article by getting hands-on with these APIs and looking at how they evolved.
Standardizing External Access to Services: The Ingress API
The Kubernetes Ingress API was created to standardize exposing services in Kubernetes to external traffic. The Ingress API overcame the limitations of the default service types,
LoadBalancer, by introducing features like routing and SSL termination.
There are over 20 implementations of Ingress controllers available. In this article, I will use Apache APISIX and its Ingress controller for examples.
You can create an Ingress resource to configure APISIX or any other Ingress implementations.
The example below shows how you can route traffic between two versions of an application with APISIX Ingress:
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1 kind: Ingress metadata: name: api-routes spec: ingressClassName: apisix rules: - host: local.navendu.me http: paths: - backend: service: name: bare-minimum-api-v1 port: number: 8080 path: /v1 pathType: Prefix - backend: service: name: bare-minimum-api-v2 port: number: 8081 path: /v2 pathType: Prefix
Tip: You can check out this hands-on tutorial to learn more about setting up Ingress on Kubernetes with Apache APISIX Ingress controller.
Since the Ingress API is not tied to any particular controller implementation, you can swap APISIX with any other Ingress controller, and it will work similarly.
This is okay for simple routing. But the API is limited, and if you want to use the full features provided by your Ingress controller, you are stuck with annotations.
For example, the Kubernetes Ingress API does not provide a schema to configure rewrites. Rewrites are useful when your upstream/backend URL differs from the path configured in your Ingress rule.
APISIX supports this feature, and you have to use custom annotations to leverage it:
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1 kind: Ingress metadata: name: api-routes annotations: k8s.apisix.apache.org/rewrite-target-regex: "/app/(.*)" k8s.apisix.apache.org/rewrite-target-regex-template: "/$1" spec: ingressClassName: apisix rules: - host: local.navendu.me http: paths: - backend: service: name: bare-minimum-api port: number: 8080 path: /app pathType: Prefix
This creates an Ingress resource that configures APISIX to route any requests with the
/app prefix to the backend with the prefix removed. For example, a request to
/app/version will be forwarded to
Annotations are specific to your choice of an Ingress controller. These "proprietary" extensions limited the scope of portability intended initially with the Ingress API.
Custom CRDs > Ingress API
Being stuck with annotations also sacrifice the usability of the Ingress controllers.
Controllers therefore solved the limitations of the Ingress API by creating their own custom resources. The example below shows configuring Ingress to route traffic between two versions of an application using APISIX's custom resource:
apiVersion: apisix.apache.org/v2 kind: ApisixRoute metadata: name: api-routes spec: http: - name: route-1 match: hosts: - local.navendu.me paths: - /v1 backends: - serviceName: bare-minimum-api-v1 servicePort: 8080 - name: route-2 match: hosts: - local.navendu.me paths: - /v2 backends: - serviceName: bare-minimum-api-v2 servicePort: 8081
These CRDs made it much easier to configure Ingress, but you are tied to the specific Ingress control implementation. Without the Ingress API evolving, you had to choose between usability or portability.
Extending Ingress and Evolution to Gateway API
Ingress API was not broken; it was limited. The Gateway API was designed to overcome these limitations.
(Gateway API) aim to evolve Kubernetes service networking through expressive, extensible, and role-oriented interfaces ...
It takes inspiration from the custom CRDs of different Ingress controllers mentioned earlier.
The Gateway API adds many features "on top" of the Ingress API's capabilities. This includes HTTP header-based matching, weighted traffic splitting, and other features that require custom proprietary annotations with the Ingress API.
Traffic split with APISIX Ingress resource (see ApisixRoute/v2 reference):
apiVersion: apisix.apache.org/v2 kind: ApisixRoute metadata: name: traffic-split spec: http: - name: rule-1 match: hosts: - local.navendu.me paths: - /get* backends: - serviceName: bare-minimum-api-v1 servicePort: 8080 weight: 90 - serviceName: bare-minimum-api-v2 servicePort: 8081 weight: 10
Traffic split with Gateway API (see Canary traffic rollout):
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1alpha2 kind: HTTPRoute metadata: name: traffic-split spec: hostnames: - local.navendu.me rules: - backendRefs: - name: bare-minimum-api-v1 port: 8080 weight: 90 - name: bare-minimum-api-v2 port: 8081 weight: 10
Another improvement from the Ingress API is how the Gateway API separates concerns. With Ingress, the application developer and the cluster operator work on the same Ingress object, unaware of the other's responsibilities and opening the door for misconfigurations.
The Gateway API separates the configurations into Route and Gateway objects providing autonomy for the application developer and the cluster operator. The diagram below explains this clearly:
Is This the End of Ingress API?
The Gateway API is relatively new, and its implementations are constantly breaking. On the contrary, the Ingress API is in stable release and has stood the test of time.
If your use case only involves simple routing and if you are okay with using custom annotations to get extra features, the Ingress API is still a solid choice.
With the Gateway API being a superset of the Ingress API, it might make sense to consolidate both. Thanks to the SIG Network community, Gateway API is still growing and will soon be production ready.
Most Ingress controllers and service meshes have already implemented the Gateway API along with the Ingress API, and as the project evolves, more implementations will surface.
Personally, at least for now, I would stick with custom CRDs provided by the Ingress controllers like Apache APISIX instead of the Ingress or Gateway API.
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