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Binary vs Text

cacilhas profile image Arĥimedeς ℳontegasppα ℭacilhας ・3 min read

Original post on Kodumaro.


I’ve seen people not understanding the difference between binary and text.

In this context, binary and text are ways the data is represented.

Binary protocol

The binary protocol uses bytes to represent data as directly as possible.

Let’s take the number 98 765. Converting from decimal to binary one gets:

1.1000.0001.1100.1101₂

C has a type named int that represents integers as 4-byte data. Regrouping the data above in 8-bit chunks (bytes), and completing the 4 bytes with zeros:

00000000.00000001.10000001.11001101₂

Counter-intuitively, the simplier way to represent binary data isn’t binary, but hexadecimal. Each 4 bits turns directly into a hexadecimal digit, so every byte is represented as 2 hexadecimal digits. So we got:

00.01.81.CD₁₆

The mathematical representation of numbers is big-endian, which means, the more representative digit comes first. Network uses big-endian too.

Most of the operating systems are little-endian, which means, the inverted order from big-endian:

CD.81.01.00₁₆

Considering we’re building a binary protocol. It needs to supply the data type in order to identify which kind of data we’re talking about.

For simplicity (something like SDXF), let’s use 1-byte type tag. For informing integer, let’s use the number 2:

02.00.01.81.CD₁₆

Text protocol

Text data are fully represented as strings. So the number 98 765 is represented as the characters needed to write the decimal number:

39.38.37.36.35₁₆

Now it needs a way to tell the system where the string ends. C uses the null character as stop one:

39.38.37.36.35.00₁₆

Pascal starts the string with 2 bytes telling the string length:

05.00.39.38.37.36.35₁₆

But, in text protocols, we cannot use non-text bytes (like 05₁₆), so we need to represent it as text too, using a separator (CR, for example) to distinguish the length from the data:

35.0C.39.38.37.36.35₁₆

Let’s put it all in perspective:

Locally Network
Binary CD.81.01.00₁₆ 02.00.01.81.CD₁₆
Text 39.38.37.36.35.00₁₆ 35.0C.39.38.37.36.35₁₆

Strings

And what about strings? Over a binary protocol, strings are easily represented, one just needs a type flag, the string length, and the string itself.

Let’s take Kodumaro (4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F₁₆):

01.4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F.00₁₆

Or, in a network transmission:

01.08.00.4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F₁₆

Over a text protocol, it usually uses a terminator character on both ends. The most common is the quotation mark (", 22₁₆):

31.30.0C.22.4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F.22₁₆

Locally Network
Binary 4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F.00₁₆ 01.08.00.4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F₁₆
Text 22.4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F.22.00₁₆ 31.30.0C.22.4B.6F.64.75.6D.61.72.6F.22₁₆

Afterword

I hope you can see how text representations are heavier than binary ones. Things get worse when considering the protocol headers.

Everytime it’s possible, prefer binary representations over text.

Discussion

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