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Gabriele Boccarusso
Gabriele Boccarusso

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Database primer

Databases are one of the most important concepts in software development and maintenance, they unify the management of data so that everyone that access it can query and easily make sure that the informations are correct from a single reliable source of data

Let's imagine an excel-like paper with all the data about a business customers:

2d table with data about customers

Without a database every different user/department/manager of a business should have to manually update a copy of the paper and this would leave a lot of problems in case of any error because everyone has a copy of the same piece of paper, but with databases we not only end this problem but we can even improve the overall organization and use of our data.

A database will be used by many people, both tech-savvy and not, so we'll need ways to easily input and output data from it.
Some of the data, such as personal informations, salaries and passwords, will need restricted access. Security and permission are one of the most important things to design when creating this kind of software.

In a database a piece of data, a row, is called a record and each item, a column, is called a field

example of a record and a field in a database

Special fields

Every record has its own ID which is unique to him. This field doesn't duplicate and is the main way to indicate a certain record, it is unique
Another special field is the remarks one. It serves as a place to store more information about the record. Remarks can accept a NULL value. It indicates that a field is empty. The ID doesn't accept a NULL value cause identifies data

example of the id and remarks fields

The relational data model

A relational data model is based on a two-dimensional table, it is the examples that we used till now. Another example is excel, which can be used as a database (although is inefficient). The most important and useful data model is this one and a database based on it is called a relational database

In a relational database some fields are more important than others. The ID field serves as the main way to identify and is thus called primary key

The main advantages of the relational data model are the mathematical operation that can be performed on it

relational database operations

those operations are either set or relational. Set operations use rows to produce a new set of rows, they are:

  • Union
  • Difference
  • Intersection
  • Cartesian product

Relational operations:

  • Projection
  • Selection
  • Join
  • Division


The union operation extracts all the different rows from multiple tables and combines them into a new one.

example of a union operation on a relational database
you can think of it as an addition between tables

Venn diagram of the union operation


The difference operation extract rows from just one table that are not included in a second one

example of a difference operation on a relational database

Venn diagram of the union operation


The intersection operation extract all the products that are not included in the selected tables

example of an intersection operation on a relational database

venn diagram of the intersection operation

cartesian product

The cartesian product combines all rows in various tables. The difference here is that the tables have different fields

example of a cartesian product operation on a relational database


The projection operation extract one or more fields from a table

example of a projection operation on a relational database


The selection operation extracts one or more records from a table

example of a selection operation on a relational database


The join operation, obviously, joins two tables, but it's more powerful than the union.

Earlier we talked about the primary key as the unique way to identify a certain record, this way we can have multiple tables that refers to the same record but with more appropriate data. A primary key in a different table is called a foreign key

difference between a primary and a foreign key
with a primary and a foreign key we can split our record into multiple tables and organize more efficiently our data eliminating useless information for that context.
The result of a join operation will be

Result of a join operation on a relational database


The division operation returns the fields that don't exists in the divided table, is used to discover a specific bit of information from data

example of a division operation on a relational database

Final thoughts

This is all you need to begin your database, everything else will come with experience and with a lot of research

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