For 2022 final result, I passed the final evaluation, obtained all the honor titles (Only 2/4000+ in all participants): Tencent Open Source Contributor Certificate (only issued 30+ around the globe at that time), Intern of Excellence, Task Scholarship.
Task 1
https://github.com/openjdk/jdk/pull/9541
Task 2
Tested computing the signature as well as verifying the signature for comparing between secp256r1
and secp256k1
using SHA256withECDSA with the help of the SunEC provider.
The result clearly shows that secp256r1
has a better performance than secp256k1
with regard to SHA256withECDSA when signing. But secp256r1
has almost the same performance as secp256k1
when verifying.
Benchmark Mode Cnt Score Error Units
BenchmarkSigning.secp256k1_1024B thrpt 25 1237.482 ± 30.518 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256k1_1024K thrpt 25 318.589 ± 2.656 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256k1_128B thrpt 25 1266.561 ± 32.311 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256k1_256B thrpt 25 1254.327 ± 36.935 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256r1_1024B thrpt 25 1746.453 ± 33.358 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256r1_1024K thrpt 25 340.530 ± 3.970 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256r1_128B thrpt 25 1763.460 ± 31.179 ops/s
BenchmarkSigning.secp256r1_256B thrpt 25 1756.899 ± 32.715 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256k1_1024B thrpt 25 486.545 ± 13.410 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256k1_1024K thrpt 25 228.638 ± 2.478 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256k1_128B thrpt 25 491.065 ± 13.948 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256k1_256B thrpt 25 499.466 ± 4.558 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256r1_1024B thrpt 25 402.902 ± 53.489 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256r1_1024K thrpt 25 212.743 ± 23.301 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256r1_128B thrpt 25 401.215 ± 65.401 ops/s
BenchmarkVerifying.secp256r1_256B thrpt 25 393.021 ± 79.755 ops/s
Further investigation shows that before secp256k1
was removed from JDK, all the curves seem to be realized by C using the OS library instead of Java. https://github.com/openjdk/jdk/blob/jdk11+28/src/jdk.crypto.ec/share/native/libsunec/impl/oid.c#L95
JDK8238911 in 2020 reported the weaknesses in the implementation of the native library EC code make it necessary to remove support for future releases. The most common EC curves (secp256r1
, secp384r1
, and secp521r1
) had been reimplemented in Java in the SunEC JCE provider.
After some communications with my mentor Johns Jiang, he tells me that JDK8181594 introduces the optimized finite field implementations in Java. Previously before that implementation was introduced, pure Java realization was really slow, then we use the OS library to realize all the curves so that the performance can be improved. But now, instead, with the help of that optimized Java library, Java realization takes the advantage and becomes the most efficient one, it's now even comparable with the pure C realization.
Our flame graph also some kind confirms this, as you can see here, the Java Flight Recorder (JFR) can record the secp256r1
methods calling stacks, but it's not the case for secp256k1
. So it's likely that secp256r1
has a better performance than secp256k1
for signing since it's fully realized in Java and using that optimized library, thus reduces the calling costs for the OS library. If they are both realized in Java using the optimized method, I guess there should be no difference.
As secp256k1
has already been removed in JDK and now secp256r1
does have a better performance, so I guess here we will have no obvious further room for improvement.
Task 3
The final report (in Chinese) is not limited to the following content, it also includes some more security analysis for different ways of realization.
With modification of SunEC provider
As for Ellipticcurve based cryptography algorithms, the curve parameters are used to generate the keys.
The official recommended curve parameters for SM2 can be seen here:
https://www.oscca.gov.cn/sca/xxgk/201012/17/1002386/files/b965ce832cc34bc191cb1cde446b860d.pdf
That curve parameters is also known as sm2p256v1
, since it's also a prime curve just like secp256r1
, we can use the existing implementation of secp256r1
in the SunEC library to help us realize our implementation.
The OID for sm2p256v1
is 1.2.156.10197.1.301
: http://gmssl.org/docs/oid.html
https://github.com/HollowMan6/jdk/tree/sm2
https://github.com/HollowMan6/jdk/commit/c3e924641bb3a838f6abc496dd380ceb619df163
We first fill the curve parameters into the CurveDB
Then add the OID and names.
The most important part is FieldGen. FieldGen
is used to automatically generate optimized finite field implementations, which is also the library I mentioned in Task 2 JDK8181594 for improving Java version's efficiency. https://github.com/HollowMan6/jdk/blob/c3e924641bb3a838f6abc496dd380ceb619df163/make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/intpoly/FieldGen.java We need to generate two fields, Integer Polynomial
(corresponds to parameter p
) and Order Field
(corresponds to parameter n
).
As:
FFFFFFFE FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF 00000000 FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF
=
FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF $2^{256}  1$

00000001 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 $2^{224}$

00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF
$2^{96}  1$
+
00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF
$2^{64}  1$
= $2^{256}  2^{224}  2^{96} + 2^{64}  2^0$
So the Integer Polynomial
shall fill just like that. We can copy other parameters from secp256r1
as they are all 256 digit prime curve.
The private keys in Hex can be printed directly with no special format.
Since the public keys in Hex can be compressed, it does have a special format, that if it starts with 04
, then the keys are uncompressed and we just then concat the X and Y coordinate together. The compressed ones always start with 02
or 03
, and then only the X coordinate is needed. The 02
and 03
is determined by that, when Y coordinate is even, we use 02
, use 03
when odd. In addition, we have to also make sure that both X and Y coordinates are 64 in length for Hex.
As the Bouncy Castle library has already fully realized the SM2, to ensure that the generated keys fit the sm2p256v1
, I also use the generated keys for signing using SM3withSM2. The validity of the keys can be verified during the signature verification processes, during which we recover the sm2p256v1
elliptic curve point from the Bouncy Castle library based on the Hex format public key. If we use keys generated based on other curves, like secp256r1
, error will be thrown.
Demo result:
Public Key (Uncompressed): 040A8FB35CA4761FAAA36B2A24E77EC657D96F74147C50EE2D5B50E3AAFD8304D8CBB65FB2E661D37B7C3B900E1BDBEDE894D9CBB9079E8DD704B9465BFF65EE17
Public Key: 030A8FB35CA4761FAAA36B2A24E77EC657D96F74147C50EE2D5B50E3AAFD8304D8
Private Key: 42756D22960A58D08F9E7E3A0D56D9630D8D051D082F4D2BFCE22FD2653524EB
To sign: How are you?
Signed: MEUCIAgvYgl0ydHwd536MkmwaRuhmkD/klh79VmHEBJI1zCRAiEAo9jNkGM+Tjh/0AmX82nSPOMYgRPaWm6SUXiB63YGAD4=
Verification OK!
Error thrown when using secp256r1
(faulty key pairs):
Public Key (Uncompressed): 0456A3205C7B47BF303F4B65CDAB5B94C343BE7220E5AAAB001B7263DBCD113B42447A9E41BF1374D4ABC7A2AE31E7441E3EB20D5808CCB7D88BFE4F8F2C9887C3
Public Key: 0356A3205C7B47BF303F4B65CDAB5B94C343BE7220E5AAAB001B7263DBCD113B42
Private Key: A33048CC39925B5D4BA4C34FE846C85D41DA5AABA0CFDE4092A7A4ED716D557
To sign: How are you?
Signed: MEYCIQCktncEmfLbC9rLC1Im9gj/AvZRUIQ5Z1plrq1X0L/5YwIhAOa0JeSoQFnV51kAJsFRY3T4cpCn2O7bKoN+M+nPpv6y
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Invalid point coordinates
at org.bouncycastle.math.ec.ECCurve.validatePoint(Unknown Source)
at org.bouncycastle.math.ec.ECCurve.decodePoint(Unknown Source)
at org.sample.SM2Util.verify(SM2Util.java:103)
at org.sample.SM2Util.main(SM2Util.java:129)
JMH Performance test for compressed and uncompressed public key generation result shows that the compressed public keys generation has a better performance than the uncompressed ones. You can find the reason from the flame graph of Java Flight Recorder (JFR), that it's because the uncompressed ones also need to caculate the Y coordinate Hex format, which takes a lot of time.
Benchmark Mode Cnt Score Error Units
BenchmarkPublicKeys.sm2p256v1_compressed thrpt 25 1212201.531 ± 248181.084 ops/s
BenchmarkPublicKeys.sm2p256v1_uncompressed thrpt 25 760033.805 ± 35058.515 ops/s
Homemade
Our realization refers to the JavaScript implementation here, Wikipedia Elliptic curve point multiplication and the official documentation .
The homemade one is based on purely mathematical methods, no other dependencies.
We use SecureRandom to generate the private key, we also tried public key generation using the Standard Projective Coordinates and Jacobian Coordinates, as well as the binary expansion and addminus algorithm.
See result for more performance comparisons.
JMH Performance test for compressed and uncompressed public key generation result shows that the uncompressed public keys generation has almost the same performance as the compressed ones. Though it seems like a contradiction, here the uncompressed Y coordinate Hex caculation counts significantly smaller when you take the overall time into consideration.
Benchmark Mode Cnt Score Error Units
BenchmarkPublicKeys.sm2p256v1_compressed thrpt 25 786.038 ± 12.099 ops/s
BenchmarkPublicKeys.sm2p256v1_uncompressed thrpt 25 795.960 ± 8.557 ops/s
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