Docker works for sure.
It takes some effort but you can also get snaps and flatpaks working for installing things besides the normal apt-get flow.
The arm thing I'm honestly not super knowledgable about but I think that's a result of the actual chromebook you have, if you got a different intel based one then I think you wouldn't even have to worry about that. That's less of a chromebook/chromeos/crostini thing and more of a hardware issue.
Also if you haven't explored into it yet, don't forget you also have almost the entire google play store's app's that you can install and use on the chromebook! :D
Ha-ha! Yup! Just installed Stardew Valley!
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