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Paul Duplys
Paul Duplys

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Security Benchmarking at 1300 °C

Hot, Hotter, Magma

Molten or semi-molten natural material that all igneous rocks are made of is called Magma. It results from the melting of the Earth's mantle or crust. Most magmas are in the range of 700 °C to 1300 °C (equivalent 1300 °F to 2400 °F), some rare ones can reach temperatures as hot as 1600 °C.

Magma is also a collection of popular open-source libraries created by the EPFL's HexHive team for evaluating and comparing fuzzer performance. To this end, the HexHive security researchers front-ported bugs from previous bug reports to the latest versions of these libraries.

For each ported bug, the researchers added instrumentation source code to collect the ground truth information about bugs reached (i.e., cases where the buggy code is executed) and triggered (i.e., cases where the fault condition is satisfied by the input) as described in their paper. Such an instrumentation allows to measure the real-world performance of a fuzzer.

Benchmark, anyone?

Let's say you came up with a shiny new method for finding security vulnerabilities in software. To convince yourself, you now want to test how well your method actually performs. Your method is, however, not a fuzzer. Can you still use Magma for your experiments? You bet! That's because the front-ported bugs in Magma are available as Git patches. Git patches allow you to precisely see where the corresponding bugs are in the source code and, in turn, whether your method is able to find them. You only need to know a few basics about Git patches.

Git Patch 101

A Git patch encodes the line-by-line difference between two text files. It describes how to turn one file into another, and is asymmetric: the patch from file1 to file2 is not the same as the patch for the other direction. The patch format uses context as well as line numbers to locate differing file regions so that a patch can often be applied to a somewhat earlier or later version of the first file than the one from which it was derived, as long as the applying program can still locate the context of the change (see the O'Reilly documentation for more details).

Here's an example of a git patch (or git diff) after I changed the argument to the printf function from "Hello World!\n" to "Hello There!\n":

$ git diff hello.c 
diff --git a/hello.c b/hello.c
index dc46521..a00b40d 100644
--- a/hello.c
+++ b/hello.c
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
 #include <stdio.h>

 int main(){
- printf("Hello World!\n");
+ printf("Hello There!\n");
  return 0;

The first line diff --git a/hello.c b/hello.c shows that the file being compared is hello.c (it's a single file and there are actually no directories a and b - it's just a convention).

The second line index dc46521..a00b40d 100644 is the extended header line. In the Git index, dc46521 and a00b40d are the blob IDs of the corresponding versions of the hello.c file. Finally, 100644 are the mode bits indicating the type of the hello.c file (standard file in this case).

The next two lines

--- a/hello.c
+++ b/hello.c

is the traditional unified diff header that shows the files being compared (hello.c in our case).

The line @@ -1,6 +1,6 @@ indicates the position of the difference section (also known as a "hunk") in the respective hello.c versions using the line number and the length. In our example, both in version --- a/hello.c and in version +++ b/hello.c the hunk starts at line 1 and extends for 6 lines (note the - and + signs in @@ -1,6 +1,6 @@).

What follows is the actual difference. The minus signs show lines present in version a/hello.c but missing in version b/hello.c and plus signs show lines missing in a/hello.c but present in b/hello.c. Thus, the difference shows that the line printf("Hello World!\n"); was replaced by the line printf("Hello There!\n");.

Examples, please!

Let's take a look at CVE-2018-13785, an integer overflow that leads to a divide by zero and, thus, a potential denial of service. The corresponding Git patch in Magma is located in targets/libpng/patches/bugs/AAH001.patch file. (Appendix A of the Magma preprint paper contains a mapping of patches to CVE IDs).

The AAH001.patch file looks like this:

$ cat bugs/AAH001.patch 
diff --git a/pngrutil.c b/pngrutil.c
index 4db3de990..01c97dc37 100644
--- a/pngrutil.c
+++ b/pngrutil.c
@@ -3163,12 +3163,27 @@ png_check_chunk_length(png_const_structrp png_ptr, png_uint_32 length)
    if (png_ptr->chunk_name == png_IDAT)
       png_alloc_size_t idat_limit = PNG_UINT_31_MAX;
       size_t row_factor =
          * (size_t)png_ptr->channels
          * (png_ptr->bit_depth > 8? 2: 1)
          + 1
          + (png_ptr->interlaced? 6: 0);
+      size_t row_factor_l =
+         (size_t)png_ptr->width
+         * (size_t)png_ptr->channels
+         * (png_ptr->bit_depth > 8? 2: 1)
+         + 1
+         + (png_ptr->interlaced? 6: 0);
+      MAGMA_LOG("AAH001", row_factor_l == ((size_t)1 << (sizeof(png_uint_32) * 8)));
+      size_t row_factor = (png_uint_32)row_factor_l;
       if (png_ptr->height > PNG_UINT_32_MAX/row_factor)
          idat_limit = PNG_UINT_31_MAX;

The patch shows that a bug is located in the pngrutil.c file, in function png_check_chunk_length starting at line 3163. The lines starting with + constitute the bug. Indeed, according to the CVE-2018-13785 which corresponds to this patch, "a wrong calculation of row_factor in the png_check_chunk_length function (pngrutil.c) may trigger an integer overflow and resultant divide-by-zero while processing a crafted PNG file, leading to a denial of service". Hence, using the Magma *.patch files you can easily locate the corresponding bugs.

TLDR; (Summary)

Magma ground-truth fuzzing benchmark is a collection of popular and diverse open-source libraries with 118 real-world front-ported bugs available in the form of Git patch files under targets/<target_name>/patches/bugs/*.patch. While the EPFL HexHive team originally designed Magma for benchmarking fuzzer performance, it can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of any method for discovering security vulnerabilities in software since patches give you the necessary ground truth.

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