Scrum (software development)
Scrum is a framework for developing, delivering, and sustaining products in a complex environment, with an initial emphasis on software development, although it has been used in other fields including research, sales, marketing and advanced technologies. It is designed for teams of ten or fewer members, who break their work into goals that can be completed within time-boxed iterations, called sprints, no longer than one month and most commonly two weeks. The Scrum Team assess progress in time-boxed daily meetings of 15 minutes or less, called daily scrums (a form of stand-up meeting). At the end of the sprint, the team holds two further meetings: the sprint review which demonstrates the work done to stakeholders to elicit feedback, and sprint retrospective which enables the team to reflect and improve.
The software development term SCRUM was first used in a 1986 paper titled "The New New Product Development Game" by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka. The paper was published in the Jan 1986 issue of Harvard Business Review. The term is borrowed from rugby, where a scrum is a formation of players. The term scrum was chosen by the paper's authors because it emphasizes teamwork.
Scrum is occasionally seen written in all-capitals, as SCRUM. While the word itself is not an acronym, its capitalized styling likely comes from an early paper by Ken Schwaber that capitalized SCRUM in its title.
While the trademark on the term scrum itself has been allowed to lapse, it is now deemed as a generic trademark owned by the wider community rather than an individual.
Many of the terms used in scrum literature are typically written with leading capitals (e.g., Scrum Master, Daily Scrum), but in many cases should not be capitalized if they are common nouns. To maintain correct grammar, this article uses normal sentence case for these terms (e.g., scrum master, daily scrum) – unless they are recognized marks (such as Certified Scrum Master and Professional Scrum Master).
Scrum is a lightweight, iterative and incremental framework for developing, delivering, and sustaining complex products. The framework challenges assumptions of the traditional, sequential approach to product development, and enables teams to self-organize by encouraging physical co-location or close online collaboration of all team members, as well as daily face-to-face communication among all team members and disciplines involved.
A key principle of scrum is the dual recognition that customers will change the scope of what is wanted (often called requirements volatility) and that there will be unpredictable challenges — for which a predictive or planned approach is not suited. These changes come from a variety of sources, but according to scrum, understanding why is irrelevant, and change should simply be accepted, embraced and analyzed for benefits.
As such, scrum adopts an evidence-based empirical approach – accepting that the problem cannot be fully understood or defined up front, and instead focusing on how to maximize the team's ability to deliver quickly, to respond to emerging requirements, and to adapt to evolving technologies and changes in market conditions.
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