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OOP concepts

httplucasreis profile image http.lucasReis ・4 min read
  • Hello guys, I finished an abstract about OOP and I want to share my annotations with you. It's my first post, then if you find any mistakes, comment. I hope you enjoy it!

Pre-OOP

  • The programmer can put related functions together in one file, but the grouping is just a convention and the compiler does not enforce it in a significant way.

OOP

  • In OOP, the logical arrangement of the code is changed. Instead of an informal arrangement of functions into different files, functionality is officially and tightly grouped with the type that it operates on.
  • You can use easily libraries — Code Re-Use
  • Modularity features
  • The clueless Client Test = The language should encourage the right client behavior, discourage common client errors, and politely alert the client if there is an error

Basic concepts

Class

  • A class is like a type in the classical language. Instead of just storing size and structural information for its data, a class also stores the operation which will apply to the data.
  • Class = Storage + Behavior
  • It creates a logical coupling between data and the operations on that data.
  • Bundle the verbs with their nouns.
  • Names of classes always start with capital characters

Example of class in Javascript

class Car {
    constructor(_factory, _model){
        this.factory = _factory
        this.model = _model
    }
}
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  • constructor is a type of subroutine called to create an object.
  • It prepares the new object for use.

Objects

  • An object is a run-time value that stores the state and belongs to some class.
  • Objects know what class they belong to, and so they automatically know what operations they are capable of.
  • The word "instance" is another word of "object"

Example of how to create an object instance in Javascript

class Car {
    constructor(_factory, _model) {
        this.factory = _factory
        this.model = _model
    }
}

// "New" show you will create an object.
const ford = new Car('Ford', 'Mustang')
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Massage and Method

  • OOP uses "messages" instead of function calls.
  • Method ≠ Functions
  • An object to operate on itself.
  • Object is like a Receiver.
  • It knows what operations it can perform, because it knows its class, and the class defines all methods or operations for its instances.

Example of class in Javascript

class Car {
    constructor(_factory, _model) {
        this.factory = _factory
        this.model = _model
    }

    turnOn() {
        return "Car is turning on... Turned on."
    }

    turnOff() {
        return "Car is turning off... turned off"
    }
}

// "New" show you will create an object.
const ford = new Car('Ford', 'Mustang')
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Message Send Syntax

  • Almost all languages use syntax: appending the message to the desired receiver with a dot.

Example

class Car {
    constructor(_factory, _model) {
        this.factory = _factory
        this.model = _model
    }

    turnOn() {
        return "Car is turning on... Turned on."
    }

    turnOff() { 
        return "Car is turning off... turned off"
    }
}

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C++, Java and Javascript syntax

objectInstance.method();
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Python syntax

objectInstance.method()
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PHP syntax

$objectInstance->method();
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Important principles

Encapsulation

  • Refers to protecting the internals of an object from direct manipulation by the client.
  • The client can send messages, but he can not change the bits in an object.
  • The object's state is only touched by its own methods.
// In any cases you need to use babel-presets.

class Car {
    factory;
    model;
    #year = 2021

    constructor(_factory, _model) {
        this.factory = _factory
        this.model = _model
    }

    get factory() {
        return this.factory
    }

    get model() {
        return this.model
    }

    get year() {
        return this.#year
    }

    turnOn() {
        return "Car is turning on... Turned on."
    }

    turnOff() {
        return "Car is turning off... turned off"
    }
}

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  • I will explain about public, private, and protected attributes another day. They also are really important concepts.
  • Read about Babel

Inheritance

  • Modularity and encapsulation are perhaps the most important concepts of OOP.

Classes hierarchy

  • Classes in OOP are arranged in a tree-like hierarchy.
  • First, we have a "superclass". It's the class above it in the tree.
  • All the classes below are "subclasses"
  • The hierarchy helps add logic to a collection of classes.

Example

Using inheritance

  • Is the process by which a class inherits the properties of its superclasses.
  • Methods are inherited


class  Player {
    constructor(_color, _age, _name){
        this.color = _color
        this.age = _age
        this.name = _name
    }

    walk() {
        return "I'm walking now"
    }

    run() { 
        return "I'm running now"
    }
}

class Knight extends Player {
    constructor(_color, _age, _name) {
        super(_color, _age, _name)
    }

    shout() {
        return "I'm shouting now, HAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH"
    }
}

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Polymorphism

  • Many classes in a program will respond to some common message.
  • If you do not know which method was inherited, polymorphism help to rewrite this method.
  • It is important when your code is complex enough that you are no longer sure of the exact class of an object.
class  Player {
    constructor(_color, _age, _name){
        this.color = _color
        this.age = _age
        this.name = _name
    }

    walk() {
        return "I'm walking now"
    }

    run() { 
        return "I'm running now"
    }
}

class Knight extends Player {
    constructor(_color, _age, _name) {
        super(_color, _age, _name)
    }

    run () {
        return "I'm running more then everybody now"
    }

    shout() {
        return "I'm shouting now, HAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH"
    }
}

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