We've all been there! Starting out, it's hard to know what's what with programming languages. And there's so much hype around this language or that, and it makes it seem like the language you are not learning has all the greatest features and will let you build 10x faster with no bugs. I'm hoping I can give some perspective on the 'why' behind all these programming languages.
There is really only one language that matters, machine code. I am referring to binary, 0's and 1's, that a microprocessor computer chip utilizes to perform an action. That is the only thing computers really understand. But it isn't realistic to write out these 1's and 0's by hand. Instead researchers figured out a way to have functions that convert to binary.
These high level languages have to be translated from a function like
mov dx, msg ; the address of or message in dx mov ah, 9 ; ah=9 - "print string" sub-function int 0x21 ; call dos services mov ah, 0x4c ; "terminate program" sub-function int 0x21 ; call dos services msg db 'Hello, World!', 0x0d, 0x0a, '$' ; $-terminated message
and it would further break down to something like this
b8 21 0a 00 00 a3 0c 10 00 06 b8 6f 72 6c 64 a3 08 10 00 06 b8 6f 2c 20 57 a3 04 10 00 06 b8 48 65 6c 6c a3 00 10 00 06 b9 00 10 00 06 ba 10 00 00 00 bb 01 00 00 00 b8 04 00 00 00 cd 80 b8 01 00 00 00 cd 80
All of this to illustrate the fact that there is no 'best language' overall. Just depends what you want to build.
You will get a lot better at programming if you spend more time coding than trying to optimize your learning, so try not to get hung up on the "best"
It doesn't matter what language you learn, because it all gets converted to binary machine code anyway by the compiler or interpreter. My advice is to pick one language and stick with it as long as you can. It is very tempting to try new languages but syntax changes will only get in the way of gaining a deeper understanding of software architecture.
If you DO have an idea of what you want to build, here is my opinion of where to start
Building Web Apps - React
Building iOS Mobile Apps - Swift
Building Android Apps - Java
Building Back End - Java / Spring