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More Matrix Voice ESP32 in Rust

Continuing with our initial Rust work on the Matrix Voice, we’ve made significant progress.


We improved the Docker image containing LLVM/Rust binaries with Xtensa support:

To build/run the Docker image:

git clone
docker build -t rust-esp ./rust-esp-container
# Wait an hour or more
docker run --rm -it -v $(pwd):/home/matrix-io rust-esp /bin/bash
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LLVM 9 brings support for debug information so it’s no longer required to pass --release to cargo.

ESP-IDF v4.0 amongst other changes includes a new script and CMake build system in addition to the now “legacy” Make system:

make -j4
source $IDF_PATH/ build
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While this may not seem like a ground breaking improvement, is a wrapper for much of the functionality that used to be different tools and scripts: make,, etc.

To speed up build iterations compared to build-project, we introduced a quick-build script:

### OLD
# Build Rust binary: `target/xtensa-esp32-none-elf/`
# Using `[build].target` from `.cargo/config`:
cargo +xtensa xbuild
# OR, the more explicit (and longer):
cargo +xtensa xbuild --target "${XARGO_TARGET:-xtensa-esp32-none-elf}"
# Replace `build/esp-app.bin` with Rust binary
"${IDF_PATH}/components/esptool_py/esptool/" \
    --chip esp32 \
    elf2image \
    -o build/esp-app.bin \

### NEW
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The create-project script created some of the scaffolding required for a Rust project. A native Rust feature has been discussed for some time, but it seems cargo-generate is the de-facto solution. esp_idf_template takes care of the following:

  • Default sdkconfig and makefiles to build native components with either CMake or “legacy” Make
  • Cargo project with necessary .cargo/config and to build Rust binary that links with ESP-IDF
  • Basic Cargo.toml and to get started

To use it:

cargo install cargo-generate
cargo generate -f --name PROJECT_NAME --git --branch v4.0
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esp_idf_build crate simplifies building Rust projects that use ESP-IDF:

  • Previously, scripts for elf2image explicitly specified the target (“xtensa-esp32-none-elf”), profile (“release”), and binary name (“esp32_everloop”). But esp_idf_build::esptool_write_script() generates which contains the correct values.

  • print_link_search() sets the link search path for native libraries (via println!("cargo:rustc-link-search=native={}")) based on the IDF_PATH environment variable. This makes the previous approach of a esp-idf symlink and lines like "-C", "link-arg=-Lesp-idf/components/esp32/ld", in .cargo/config no longer necessary.

Care must be taken as a bug in cargo makes mixing build scripts with cross-compiling occasionally unpredictable.

Finally, we updated Rust FFI bindings to ESP-IDF to v4.0; adding the wifi, websocket, and mqtt APIs.

Matrix Voice

The fine folks at Matrix-io started a re-write of their C++ HAL in Rust. We contributed an implementation for the Voice w/ ESP32 via ESP-IDF. This includes an implementation of the “everloop” demo in Rust:


extern crate matrix_rhal;

use matrix_rhal::bus::MatrixBus;

pub fn app_main() {
    let bus = matrix_rhal::bus::init();
    let everloop = matrix_rhal::Everloop::new(&bus);
    let mut counter = 0;
    loop {
        const NUMBER_LEDS: usize =
            matrix_rhal::bus::memory_map::device_info::MATRIX_VOICE_LEDS as usize;
        let mut image1d = [matrix_rhal::Rgbw::black(); NUMBER_LEDS];
        image1d[(counter / 2) % NUMBER_LEDS].r = 20;
        image1d[(counter / 7) % NUMBER_LEDS].g = 30;
        image1d[(counter / 11) % NUMBER_LEDS].b = 30;
        image1d[NUMBER_LEDS - 1 - (counter % NUMBER_LEDS)].w = 10;

        counter += 1;
        unsafe {
            // Set RTC timer to trigger wakeup and then enter light sleep

extern "C" {
    fn abort() -> !;

fn panic(_info: &core::panic::PanicInfo) -> ! {
    unsafe {
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The last part of app_main() is interesting as it makes use of ESP32 sleep modes. Rather than a simple delay or “thread sleep” there’s “light” and “deep” sleep power-saving modes:

Mode Powered Off Powered On
Light Wifi/BT CPUs/RAM/peripherals clock-gated, supply voltage reduced
Deep CPUs/RAM/peripherals/Wifi/BT RTC controller/peripherals/memories

The API provides a number of options such as what triggers wake-up; here we’re using RTC, but you could instead use GPIO, etc. It’s also possible to put the wifi modem to sleep so an AP connection is maintained.


Using the native ets_printf for logging was pretty painful:

unsafe {
    esp_idf_sys::ets_printf(b"value=%d\n\0".as_ptr() as *const _, 1);
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We added esp_idf_logger, an initial ESP-IDF implementation of the log facade.

The implementation for fn log(&self, record: &log::Record) had us stumped for a while. Particularly because the return value of log::Record::args() -> core::fmt::Arguments as you get from format_args!, is normally passed to format!. However, format! is in libstd and not available in no_std.

This SO provides one solution. Basically, you impl core::fmt::Write for a type that wraps the buffer, then call write!(wrapper, "{}", record.args()):

struct Wrapper<'a> {
    buf: &'a mut [u8],
    offset: usize,

impl<'a> fmt::Write for Wrapper<'a> {
    fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str) -> fmt::Result {
        // Append `s` to `self.buf[offset]`

/// Elsewhere

// C API expects log output ends with newline and nul-terminating 0
let buffer_suffix: &[u8; SUFFIX_SIZE] = b"\n\0";
let mut string_buffer = [0u8; BUFFER_SIZE];
// Always leave enough space for `\n\0`
let mut writer = Wrapper::new(&mut string_buffer[..BUFFER_SIZE - SUFFIX_SIZE]);
let res = write!(writer, "{}", record.args());
let mut offset = writer.offset();

// Error handling

// Append `\n\0`
string_buffer[offset..offset + SUFFIX_SIZE].copy_from_slice(buffer_suffix);
unsafe {
    esp_idf_sys::ets_printf(string_buffer.as_ptr() as *const _);
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Now you can write the very svelte:

log::info!("value={}", 1);
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Finally, esp_idf is a (very incomplete) high-level wrapper for esp-idf-sys. It hides some of the unsafe, pointer, naming, and usage nastiness of the bindgen generated FFI bindings and replaces functions that return a C int with a more natural Result. This is shown in more detail below.


One of our highest priority goals is to get the Voice/ESP32 on wifi. Starting with a direct port of the ESP-IDF wifi example:


pub fn app_main() {



fn wifi() -> Result<(), esp_idf::error::Error> {
    use esp_idf::*;

    let cfg = wifi::InitConfig::default();
    event::handler_register(event::events::ip::StaGotIp, event_handler)?;
    event::handler_register(event::events::wifi::Any, event_handler)?;

    let config = wifi::StaConfig::from(&CONFIG).unwrap();
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In particular, eschewing C API naming convention for modules and replacing int return values with Result:

// In esp-idf-sys/
extern "C" {
    pub fn esp_event_loop_create_default() -> esp_err_t;
// In esp_idf/
mod event {
    pub fn loop_create_default() -> Result<(), error::Error> {
        unsafe {
            let retval = esp_event_loop_create_default();
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Another goal was to discourage committing AP passwords into SCC. Here using include! to bring .gitignore‘d file in at compile time:In

const CONFIG: Config = Config {
    ssid: "YYYYYYYYYY",
    password: "XXXXXXXXXXXX",
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The next step will be to have extract the password from an environment variable.

ESP-IDF events are handled by:

unsafe extern "C" fn event_handler(
    _event_handler_arg: *mut core::ffi::c_void,
    event_base: esp_event_base_t,
    event_id: i32,
    _event_data: *mut core::ffi::c_void,
) {
    use esp_idf::event::*;
    match Event::try_from((event_base, event_id)) {
        Ok(Event::Wifi(WifiEvent::StaStart)) | Ok(Event::Wifi(WifiEvent::StaDisconnected)) => {
            log::info!("esp_wifi_connect trying...");
            log::info!("esp_wifi_connect ok.");
        Ok(Event::Ip(IpEvent::StaGotIp)) => log::info!("GOT_IP!"),
        Err(_) => log::warn!("Unhandled event: {:?} {}", EventBase::try_from(event_base), event_id),
        _ => {},
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There are improvements to make this more ergonomic (including support for Rust closures). As well as upcoming pattern matching improvements:

// OLD
match Event::try_from((event_base, event_id)) {
        Ok(Event::Wifi(WifiEvent::StaStart)) | Ok(Event::Wifi(WifiEvent::StaDisconnected)) => { },
// NEW
match Event::try_from((event_base, event_id)) {
        Ok(Event::Wifi(WifiEvent::StaStart | WifiEvent::StaDisconnected)) => { },
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Binary Size

At one point during development we hit the limits of the flash-able binary size. This drove an investigation into Rust binary sizes. There’s several good resources:

Make sure to look at the binary produced by elf2image because this will strip debug symbols from the ELF binary and is a more accurate representation of what you’ll be flashing.


In Cargo.toml you can specify a number of per-profile options including link-time optimization (LTO):

lto = "fat"
incremental = false # if enabled, `codegen-units` is ignored
codegen-units = 1

lto = "fat"
codegen-units = 1
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Dev Release Notes
Initial 629472 618896
lto = “thin” 633056 618784 The docs say “thin” should be almost as good and faster to build
lto = “fat” 635168 610224 Same as lto = true
fat + codegen-units = 1 633088 609632


Dev Release Notes
Initial 629472 618896
panic=”abort” 629488 618928

Several online resources mention this, but it either no longer works or is ineffective in no_std environments.


The compiler can be instructed to optimize for size (vs speed).

There’s two different ways this can be done:

  • For dependencies only via overrides
  • For everything
# Dependencies
opt-level = "z"

opt-level = "z"

# Everything
opt-level = "z"

opt-level = "z"
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This can be used to, for example, keep the top-level crate debug-able while reducing the size of dependencies.

Dev Release Notes
Initial 629472 618896
dependencies 620128 618256
opt-level=”z” 617632 617616

Not terribly surprising since this project has few dependencies.


Running either make menuconfig or menuconfig you can tweak numerous values set in sdkconfig. Scouring ESP-IDF forums reveals numerous suggestions:

  • In Compiler Options , set Optimization Level>Release and Assertion level>Silent
  • In Component config>Newlib>Enable ‘nano’ formatting options
Dev Release Notes
Initial 629472 618896
menuconfig 536928 526336

This yields the biggest wins. Not entirely surprising given that ESP-IDF represents the bulk of the code base. Disabling unneeded components and features like older versions of TLS can yield further gains depending on your requirements.

Note that “nano formatting options” requires changes in .cargo/config:

"-C", "link-arg=-Tesp32.rom.newlib-nano.ld",
# Replace
#"-C", "link-arg=-lc",
# With
"-C", "link-arg=-lc_nano",
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Forming up like Voltron, combined they yield:

Dev Release Notes
Initial 629472 618896
All the above 525376 516896

It’s clear menuconfig has the potential to provide the biggest wins. We can investigate that further.

In .cargo/config add:"-C", "link-arg=-Wl,-Map=build/", size displays a short summary:

Total sizes:
 DRAM .data size: 12252 bytes
 DRAM .bss size: 24336 bytes
Used static DRAM: 36588 bytes ( 144148 available, 20.2% used)
Used static IRAM: 79880 bytes ( 51192 available, 60.9% used)
      Flash code: 353517 bytes
    Flash rodata: 71132 bytes
Total image size:~ 516781 bytes (.bin may be padded larger)
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Per-archive contributions to ELF file:
            Archive File DRAM .data & .bss   IRAM Flash code & rodata   Total
           libnet80211.a        925   8884  11343     109814    21466  152432
               liblwip.a         21   3990      0      68557    17134   89702
                 libpp.a       1282   5314  23480      37600     5048   72724
                libphy.a       1604    929   6491      30262        0   39286
     libwpa_supplicant.a          0    686      0      30000     4377   35063
           libfreertos.a       4140    776  12869          0     1289   19074
             libc_nano.a        364      0      0      16131      512   17007
              libesp32.a       2314    133   6396       5311     2182   16336
          libnvs_flash.a          0     32      0       9939      266   10237
                libsoc.a        132      4   5854        676     3479   10145
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Per-file contributions to ELF file:
             Object File DRAM .data & .bss   IRAM Flash code & rodata   Total
       ieee80211_ioctl.o        620    403      0      18159     3509   22691
                wl_cnx.o          2     51    262      17902     4384   22601
      ieee80211_output.o          3   2600   3450      11744     1166   18963
                    pp.o        180    917  10151       5570      716   17534
           phy_chip_v7.o        921    827   1029      14219        0   16996
         ieee80211_sta.o          0     34   6174       6286     2338   14832
                  wdev.o         51     54   6146       7097      676   14024
        ieee80211_scan.o         14    284      0      10723     2656   13677
                   trc.o        636   1904   3493       5487     1271   12791
       phy_chip_v7_cal.o        477     53   3420       8711        0   12661
                  lmac.o          3    234   1948       9320      715   12220
          ieee80211_ht.o          4      4   1383       8938     1114   11443
      ieee80211_hostap.o          1     41      0       9459      735   10236
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Looks like we could shed another 200KB or so by dropping networking support. But then it wouldn’t make for a very good wifi demo.

Also wanted to give a Rust-specific tool cargo-bloat a try. It didn’t work, but can be installed with:

cargo install cargo-bloat --features regex-filter
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