R is a open source free statistical programming language.R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms, Windows and MacOS.

Variable in R

There are 3 basic way to declare a variable in R.

1sy way, a=24

2nd way, b <- "Hello"

3rd way, False -> C

Others, Exceptional - c =5L, L-integer

Data Operator in R

- Arithmetic: (+, -,*,/,^, %%, %/%) 2.Assignment: (=,->>,<<-) 3.Relational (>,<,==,!=) 4.Logical (&(AND), |(OR), !(NOT)) 5.Special (:(range), %in%(between))

Data Type in R

- Vector - sequence of element

exp -

Vrt=(1,2,3,4) or vtr <- (1,2,3,4)

Operation - Indexing, replacing and sort

- Lists

Lists are the R object which contain elements of different types. like - number, strings, vectors and another lists.

Exp-

n=c(2,3,4)

s=c("aa","vv")

x=list(n,s, TRUE)

Operations - Merging (List1<-(1,2), List2('hi') merged.list <-c(list1,list2)), Slicing, Indexing

- Arrays

Arrays are the R data object which can store data in more than two dimensions.

Exp-

Vector1 <- c(4,6,7)

Vector2 <- c(10,12,13)

result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim=c(2,2,1))

4.Matrices

Matrices are the R object in which the elements are arranged in a 2-d rectangular layout.

-A matrix is created using matrix() function.

matrix(data, nrow, ncol, byrow, dimnames)

data- is the input vector which becomes the data elements of the matrix.

nrow-is the number of the rows to be created.

ncol-is the number of the columns to be created.

byrow- is the logical clue. If TRUE then input vector elements are the arraged by row.

dimname-is the names assigned to rows and columns.

exp-

vrt1 <- c(2,6,14,18,22)

vrt2 <- c(5,7,9,45,36)

mtr <- matrix(c(vtr1, vtr2), 5,5)

5.Factors

Factors are the data objects which are used to categorize the data and store it as levels.

- They can store both strings and integers.
- They are useful in the data analysis for statistical modeling.

data <- c("East","West","North","North","North","East","West","East")

factor_data <- factor(data)

exp -

vrt1 <- c(2,6,14,18,22)

factvtr <- factor(vrt1)

- Data Frames A data frame is a table or a 2-d array-like strucuture in which each column contains values of one variable and each row contains one set of values from each column.

emp_id=c(1:5),

emp_name=c("Richa", "Antima","Priya"),

salary= c(564.3,321.2,675.1),

emp.data <- data.frame(emp_id, emp_name, salary)

Flow Control Statements -:

IF,

x=5

if(x>3){

print("X is greater than 3")

}

IF-ELSE,

x=5

if(x>5){

print("X is greater than 5")

}

else if (x==5){

print("x equal to 5")

}

else{

print("x is not greater than 5")

}

Switch Case:

vtr <- c(150,200,250,300,350,400)

option <- "mean"

switch(option,

"mean"=mean((vtr)),

"mode"=mode((vtr))),

"median"=median((vtr)))

print("value invali")

)

Loops:

x=2

repeat{

x=x^2

print(x)

if(x>100)

break

}

x=2

while(x<1000){

x=x^2

print(x)

}

--

vtr <- c(7,19, 25,65,45)

for(i in vtr){

print(i)

}

print(vtr)

for(i in 1:15){

if (i%%2)==0){

next

}

print(i)

}

--

Visualization in R:

- Pie Chart

vtr <- c(12,28,11,30,17)

name <- c("R&D","Marketing","Sales","Support")

pie(vtr,name)

- Bar Chart: vtr <- c(12,28,11,30,17) name <- c("R&D","Marketing","Sales","Support") barplot(vtr)

3.Boxplot

boxplot(mpg ~cyl, data= mtcars, xlab = "number of Cylinders", ylab= "Miles per Gallon", main = "Mileage data")

- Histogram

vtr =(9,1,3,7,8,4,70)

hist(vtr)

Line Graph:

vtr =(9,1,3,7,8,4,70)

plot(vtr, type = "o")Scatterplot:

vtr1 =(9,1,3,7,8,4,70)

vtr2 =(6,1,3,3,8,0,70)

plot(vtr1, vtr2)

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