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Jovi De Croock
Jovi De Croock

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Modern bundling

Some people might call this title confusing, I am not talking about how we bundle but rather about what we bundle.

You might think (or not) another post about bundling, well this topic just feels really good to me. I hope that I can start this train of thought and help make this step.


We are seeing more and more browsers fully comply to the ES2015 standards, this makes one wonder why everything is still transpiled down to ES5.

Well most of us know the answer, IE11 is a reasonable chunk of the web usage, in this proposal I won't be telling you to drop support for IE11 but rather move this responsibility to the developer using bundlers, transpilers, ...

We don't really know for how long we'll be seeing the use case to support IE11, on the bright side Microsoft has started discouraging the use of it.


Let's talk features, the main features to support in ES2015 for me are, in no
particular order (feel free to ping me if I forget some):

A little extra, javascript modules are already 80% supported in the HTML script tag.

Note that it is safe to assume that every browser supporting module, supports the modern syntax.


Shipping ES2015 offers two net positives, one being that it takes less time to parse for your browser.
Secondly it reduces the bundle size a significant amount, this makes for less code to download AND less code to parse.

This makes the argument that CSR applications are bad for first-paint etc a bit less present.


Maybe after reading all this you think to yourself well we don't even have IE11 users,let's just ship the modern bundle.

You could do this but all your dependencies you are using are still transpiled down to ES5 (and adding them to the babel-loader/... won't "transpile it up to es2015").

This means even if you as a developer want to ship your product in ES2015 it will only be your code combined with your dependencies in the older syntax.
Since these dependencies probably make up more than half of your code at this point in time there's not much benefit to be gained from shipping your own code as modern.

Package fields

We could introduce a new field in package.json to enable authors to ship ES2015 code but do we really want to add yet another level of complexity to the package.json?

In essence this would be the most "backwards compatible" solution for documentation and tutorials.

Doing this would in my opinion start an endless spiral, where in theory a field could be added for every new ES version. This is something I would really want to stay away from.


When we're looking at libraries we see that it is commonly accepted that the author decides on how far the bundle is transpiled down.
Developers exclude node_modules from their loader and just assume it will all be okay.

An interesting idea I have been playing with is just shipping ES2015 in the module field.
If your target audience is smaller the developer using the library can add it to their loader and noone complains (more about this later).

The biggest problem I see here is that the transition of so many libraries would take a HUGE amount of time.

An added complexity of this could be when library authors are making use of things that need polyfills, they could specify it somewhere in for example a pkg.json.
I know this contributes to an extra complexity again but I want a starting point for all these things.

Note that with this mindset library authors can easily transition to higher targets should the need arise.

Consumer mindset

This is what troubles me the most, we would have to signify to library consumers that the browsers they support should be part of the build step, which in theory is already the case but not for thirth party dependencies.

This adds a significant amount of complexity to the initial setup of an application, ofcourse library authors can disclose that they are shipping ES2015/ES5 and include what should be added to the bundler config, but do we really want to go this far?
We take away the ease of mind of the consumer that thinks it will just work and add this extra on top of it all. Allthough, in my opinion most people who just want it to work aren't heavily into optimising their app and could use the browser or mainfield instead. Which in turn opts them out of tree-shaking, so that's not really what we want.

You could argue we need a step back to move forward but I am afraid things could just stay this way (with the added complexity on loaders etc) when the "nevergreen" browsers dissapear.
However this change enables us to rapidly move forward when they really do dissapear, by then most libraries will be shipping ES2015 and the need to disclose the level of transpilation will have dropped.


For this part I'll refer to babel a lot but this also goes for TS, bublé,...


When using our transpiler we add a polyfill to support older browsers e.g.
@babel/polyfill, corejs,... This is a polyfill that will get downloaded even when your browser supports these features AND when you are not using these features.

Something that could be introduced is smart-detection, which would detect what is used in your codebase and polyfill for that or polyfill by looking at your browserslist in the preset-env.

Polyfilling at runtime, for example when IE11 is your browser and send other polyfills is not doable. Making a seperate bundle with polyfills for nevergreen/evergreen is doable.


Remember me saying library authors can disclose what polyfills are needed? Well this revolves around that part.

If we'd have a plugin that would traverse our code and tell us what polyfills are needed when it is ES5 or when it is ES2015 would enable more fine-grained polyfilling.

You would disclose your lowest target and it could accurately include/exclude certain polyfills, which in turn reduces your bundle size again.


In my spare time I made a proof of concept where it's possible to provide two bundles one legacy and one modern. This is based on a gist found on GitHub where the modern bundles are included in a script type="module" and the legacy in a script nomodule.


Personally, my two cents after making the above work is that we have endless possibilities in terms of supporting legacy browsers aswell as ship ES2015 to the evergreen browsers.

Closing thoughts

If i forgot to mention any problems that could arise feel free to ping me.

I would really like to propose this as an RFC on a few repositories but it is such a huge change to our current way of working that I really don't know where to start.

Essentially I would have no issue working together with OSS repositories on this and help implement it.

A good point of entry for libraries would be microbundle, a lot of libraries use this to bundle their code.

For the polyfilling part I think we'll have to be at the TypeScript and Babel repo.

This idea initially started thanks to benjamn in the apollo repositories.



Where it began

Consuming ES2015

Deploying ES2015

Rethink bundling


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