Cover image by Andreas Kay licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.
A version of this article previously appeared in my blog.
This article is part of a series on Haskell about how easy it is to define infinite structures in really concise ways. Lazy evaluation is an evaluation strategy that is the foundation of many features of haskell, from performance to expressiveness. In this first article, we explore different evaluation strategies found in other languages, how they compare to Haskell's and their benefits and drawbacks. No Haskell knowledge is required for this first post :)
Call me by your value
When discussing different families of programming languages, we sometimes use the phrases call-by-value to refer to how parameters are passed to a function when it is called. Consider the following code in a generic language
def f(a, b): return a * 2
If we say the language is call-by-value we mean that the variables
b are evaluated before copies of them are passed to the function
f. For instance, if we called
f with arguments
a = 2 + 3 and
b = 3 * 3 the following would happen in a call-by-value language:
f(a, b) = f((2 + 3), (3 * 3)) = f(5, (3 * 3)) = f(5, 9) = 5 * 2 = 10
It takes roughly 5 steps to compute the value
f(a, b). Observe that even though the value of
f is only dependent on the value of
a, the parameter
b is still evaluated. We call this evaluation strategy strict, because it does not care about the usefulness of the values, it just computes everything as a very stubborn robot would do. This is the case with some low-level languages
Call me by your name
What if we delayed evaluation until the parameters were actually needed? We call this call-by-name and it is an example of a non-strict evaluation strategy. Let's look at how the previous computation would look like with a call-by-name approach:
f(a, b) = f((2 + 3), (3 * 3)) = (2 + 3) * 2 = 5 * 2 = 10
Wow! We saved one step! This is not too much but suppose that
b weren't simple arithmetic expressions but complex computations instead. Then not computing
b would certainly be beneficial. Is this always the case? Unfortunately, it turns out, it isn't. Look at the following definition and compare the two evaluations:
def square(a): return a * a -- Call-by-value (strict) evaluation square(a) = square((2 + 3)) = square(5) = 5 * 5 = 25 -- Call-by-name (non-strict) evaluation square(a) = square((2 + 3)) = (2 + 3) * (2 + 3) = 5 * (2 + 3) = 5 * 5 = 10
Yikes! That's one more step. Now a natural question is, which evaluation strategy makes more sense? Call-by-name seems better since unused values are not computed... Also, why did we calculate
(2 + 3) twice? Couldn't we have stored the value for the second calculation?
Call me lazy
Turns out if we add sharing to call-by-name, this strategy will never take more steps to evaluate an expression than call-by-value. We call this call-by-need or lazy evaluation in the context of Haskell. Call-by-need is also a form of non-strict evaluation but has this added benefit of never introducing a performance penalty (well, at least in the number of steps2).
Let's look at how the previous examples would look like if we used call-by-need.
f(a) = f((2 + 3)) = (2 + 3) * 2 = 5 * 2 = 10 square(a) = square((2 + 3)) = (2 + 3) * (2 + 3) = 5 * 5 = 10
We can see that in both cases the evaluation takes fewer steps than call-by-name or call-by-value.
Call-by-need or lazy evaluation is central to both the performance and expressiveness of the Haskell language. In addition, the Haskell compiler has pureness and a strong type system at its disposal, enabling it to make much more aggressive optimisations than would be possible in other languages. More simply, expressiveness in Haskell does not come with a performance price to pay.
In the following articles we will apply lazy evaluation to create infinite structures.
If you want to read more about evaluation strategies, you can check out this wikipedia article
Although in some languages we may substitute call-by-name with call-by-reference, the idea of strict evaluation still applies — all parameters are evaluated before the function call — only in call-by-reference the address of the value is passed instead of a copy of the value itself, allowing the function to modify it. ↩
It may, however, introduce a memory usage penalty, but these cases are more rare and easier to detect and fix just by rewriting the order of arguments. ↩
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