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Markus Ineichen
Markus Ineichen

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Plugin based architecture in Rust


In an excellent Talk, Uncle Bob complains, that the first thing he noticed when reviewing an application of his son was the fact that it was a RAILS app. He criticised that RAILS, a popular web framework, should remain in the background, as it is just an abstraction over the concept of an IO device, the web.

The first thing I should see ought to be the reason the system exists... The web is an IO device, and the one thing we learned back in the 1960s was, that we didn't want to know what IO device we are using. Uncle Bob

Following this advice, folders should be named after domain functionality like /cart/add rather than technical descriptions like /persister/cart. Plugin based architecture takes this approach one step further and introduces a dedicated plugin project per feature group.
If these projects are integrated as dynamic libraries, features and platform can be released independently as long as they communicate via a stable ABI (see chapter ABI stability).
Beside features, cross cutting concerns like database access, http routes, logging or running background tasks could be implemented as reusable plugins too.

Using a plugin architecture,

  • reduces coupling of features to the infrastructure. Files which e.g. know about all http routes or all database migrations violate the open closed principle
  • allows functionality to be installed on demand to save disk space or to protect licensed features if the software is shipped to the customer
  • makes a rebuild of the entire executable obsolete. This results in significantly faster compile times. See experiment bellow
  • allows sharing infallible interfaces. In contrast, microservices usually communicate over a network which adds performance overhead and forces callers to handle potential connection errors and therefore increases the overall complexity

In a plugin architecture, plugins can extend the main application with

  • custom UI elements
  • http endpoints
  • background processes
  • cli commands
  • ...

When composing these plugins, one might require functionality from other plugins. E.g. the http endpoint of a feature requires a database connection which might be shared among many plugins. Therefore, the executable application needs a mechanism to link those components together.

Obstacles for implementations in Rust

I remember learning the PHP framework "Symfony2" back in 2011. This was the first framework I've ever seen, whose core was composed of multiple, independently usable libraries.
It even allows replacing functionality of the core without complicated factory code by overriding the default implementation of an interface with a custom class within the IOC (Inversion of Control) container.
Asp.Net Core is using a similar architecture. In both cases, IOC containers play a crucial role to provide maximal flexibility.

Unfortunately, there was no IOC container available in Rust which supported more advanced features like

  • Services with different lifetimes (a cache lives longer than a HTTP-Request)
  • Early checks at runtime, whether all dependencies of registered services are resolvable
  • Getting all registered services of a type
  • Implement Send+Sync to be threadsafe
  • Using stable Rust

This is why I recently released the first version of minfac on Not only does it provide the mentioned features, but it also eliminates weaknesses frequently stumbled on in other languages like scope validation.

IOC containers solve both challenges of linking implementations of services and service discovery in one thin layer. The following section intends to give a rough overview without going into code too much.

Implementation in Rust using minfac

Creating a microframework on top of minfac is straight forward. The following sections illustrate the takeaways when building the prototype. The workspace has the following structure:

  • raf-core: Core infrastructure. It currently only contains the trait HostedService without any implementation. The intent of this trait is explained bellow.
  • raf-sql: Registers a SQLite connection, which can be used by other plugins
  • raf-web: Registers a HostedService to run a Webserver. It uses the IOC container to detect routes registered by other plugins.
  • runtime: The executable project. The startup sequence is explained bellow. It has dependencies to all projects prefixed with raf.
  • todo: Sample plugin. It creates all necessary sql tables on startup and registers http endpoints, which are loading data from SQLite. Notice that no other project, not even the runtime, depends on this project.

Projects prefixed with raf define and implement cross-cutting concerns and can easily be reused in other projects. The Todo project compiles into a dynamic library and has exactly one public symbol: The register-function. Within this function, a plugin registers various services, which are discoverable and can be used by other plugins or the runtime.
The following example illustrates the scenario of a plugin registering an i32 as a service based on a u8, which must be provided by another plugin. If no one registers a u8, the application won't be able to start. Other plugins can require the i32 provided by this plugin in the same way as this plugin requires a registered u8.
raf-* projects have a similar function, but don't declare it as extern "C", because they're statically linked with the executable project.

pub extern "C" fn register(collection: &mut ServiceCollection) {
        .register(|byte| byte as i32 * 2);
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The platform tries to find and call these symbols in all dynamic libraries within the plugins folder using the libloading crate. After each plugin registered all of its services, the platform tries to build the ServiceProvider, which can be used to resolve services.
Building the ServiceProvider only works, if the dependencies of all registered services are fulfilled. Otherwise, a detailed error is provided to help with debugging. If all dependencies are met, that provider is used to retrieve all registered Box<dyn HostedService>, which are then started asynchronously.
Once all HostedServces finish execution, the application shuts down.

ABI stability

Unfortunately, just before publishing this article I found out, that Rust does not guarante a stable ABI, not even between two separate runs of the compiler with the same rustc version. This means that plugins might suddenly not be compatible anymore for no obvious reasons.
Even though I never experienced any problems during development (neither on windows, linux nor mac), I'd recommend you to just share datastructures with #[repr(C)] attribute or use types from abi_stable_crates. A stable ABI will be shipped with minfac:0.0.2, as datastructures in minfac:0.0.1 don't have the #[repr(C)] attribute yet.
A discussion about having a stable Rust ABI can be found in the internals forum. If anybody knows, why compiling with the compiler option -C prefer-dynamic is supported, I'd be interested to know, as I can't see how this problem is solved there.

If you just want to separate your code into multiple projects, you can simply link your plugins statically to avoid ABI instability, as we did with the raf-* projects.

Compilation time

If all code lives in a single project, changes in any code results in recompilation of the entire project. It is therefore common practice to split big projects into multiple subprojects to reduce build time. When features are linked dynamically, not even the runtime executable has to be recompiled.
The following benchmark shows, that changes in dynamically linked plugins compile in 1.400s while the same project takes 2.143s on average if linked statically, even if there is just a single plugin.


A plugin based architecture can be implemented in Rust using minfac.

  • Assuring ABI stability is error prone, because doing it wrong does not immediately lead to errors
  • It would be great to have the tooling to share library dependencies like tokio as dynamic libraries among plugins so the runtime wouldn't need to be linked statically.
  • Even in a project with a single plugin, dynamic linking dropped compile time by 38%

If you'd like to read more about plugin based architectures in Rust, please give a thumbs up. If there is enough demand, I'd like to write a series with step-by-step instructions.

I'm currently looking for a Job as a Rust developer in Switzerland or remote. If your team is looking for a passionate developer, I'd very much appreciate if you'd consider me for that position.

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