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Rahil Rehan
Rahil Rehan

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Microservices concepts - Java

Microservices Concepts (Using Java technologies)

In microservices we can have multiple services running, and each service can have multiple instances as well.

Product service: browse products using rest api
Order service: places order
Inventory service: checks if product is available in inventory
Notification service:

Discovery Service

  • Each service can have multiple instances running and they need to discover each other.
  • As we cannot particularly specify the service as they are multiple instances, referring to different service needs to be generic.
  • Referring to one service means to refer to available services.
  • In java we can use spring cloud netflix eureka

Centralized configuration

  • If we change a config variable in code, we need to make change to code, compile and re-deploy it again.
  • If we have multiple instances of same service then it becomes hard as we need to take down those services as well .
  • Solution: Use a centralized config server
  • Store all config variables of different services in different files in a git repository or local store.
  • Whenever there is change in these files, config server will have new config variables.
  • Now to refresh all the config variables in runtime, you need to call to some api actuator which will refresh the config variables in that service and all its instances.
  • In Java Central config server with automatic refresh

Storing secrets in vault

  • usernames, passwords, database links etc have to be hidden from configuration
  • We have to install vault in our system or via docker, starting vault will start a server as well.
  • Save all the secrets in vault.
  • In Java we can use Spring starter vault config to use secrets in our code.
  • It's enough just to connect to vault server and all the secrets are made available to the service.

Message Broker

  • One service might depend on other service, change in config variable of one service may effect the other.
  • We can use message broker like RabbitMQ, which broadcast that there is some change in config to other services which are subscribed to that service which has changes.
  • RabbitMQ must be installed on the host system and runs on some host and port.
  • RabbitMQ in infra?

API gateway

  • We may have different services in our application.
  • Each service may handle different endpoints.
  • API gateway, receives a uri request from clients.
  • It redirects the client to correct service.
  • It acts like a central endpoint distributer.
  • We can attach load balancers to each service as well.
  • Authentication, monitoring and rete limiting can also be taken care here.
  • API gateway is also a service and should be present in discovery service.
  • In Java, spring cloud gateway

Sercuring server with authentication and authorization

  • Run keycloak on host machine, it will start at some port
  • token relay:
    • If authentication is done by token, using keycloak as we will be authorizing at api gateway, we need to send this token to the respective gateway as well.
  • In Java, use Keycloak


  • Order service asynchronously communicates with Inventory service
  • Inventory service can go down, so we need to make it resilient
  • RequestInterceptor:
    • When one service is speaking to other, authentication token is not sent. Because, it is not token relay mechanism.
    • For passing auth token, we need to get the token and append it to authorization bearer in the request header and then send the request to service.
  • Definition: watch for service outages and network latencies and temporarily stop the service until service starts functioning normally again .
  • In Java, Resilience4g or hystrix(netflix - not maintained right now)

Event driven microservices architecture

  • When order is placed, order service broadcasts message to notification service via RabbitMQ.
  • Use rabbitMQ binders to listen for events
    • output binders: to send notifications
    • input binders: to receive notifications

Distributed tracing

  • microservices pattern allows us to track the requests from one microservice to other.
  • We give unique id along the journey of the request
  • each request has same trace id along its journey
  • but when there is a circuit breaker in between, trace id changes as circuit breaker spawns a new thread. But there is a workaround to keep our trace id same(traceableExecuterService in Java)
  • In java, we use spring cloud sleuth and zipkin

Centralized logging

  • logs are all over different services
  • place all logs in a centralized manner
  • First we need to use some logging library at each service like log4J or logback
  • beware of security issues while logging
  • In java (ELK stack is popular -> elastic search, logstash and kibana)
    • logstash: application services send logs to logstash over tcp. these logs are then sent from logstash to elastic search.
      • phases: (configure in logstash.conf)
        • input: from services using tcp or ftp or rabbitMQ
        • filter: filter logs
        • output: send to elastic search
    • Elastic search(search engine implementation in java): Used to store logs
      • Each service has its own index in elastic search
    • Kibana: Visualize, Query and filter elastic search data


  • Do not use microservice architecture unless there is a need. Monoliths are best in most cases.

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