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Basti Ortiz
Basti Ortiz

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Dipping Toes into Unsafe Code

Unsafe code: the bane of every programmer. For languages like Rust and C#, unsafe code is formally quarantined from the rest of the code at the language level. Although inherently "unsafe", they often serve as the foundation of most "safe" abstractions.

Unsurprisingly, unsafe code has a reputation for being tricky to deal with. Edge cases, nasty pitfalls, resource corruption, and invariant violations plague an otherwise omnipotent language feature.

In this article, we dip our toes into implementing our own safe abstraction over unsafe code in Rust. In doing so, we explore the mindset and thought processes involved when upholding safety.

A Block of Optionals

As our motivating example, we implement a memory-efficient direct-address table (DAT). One can think of DATs as a special case of hash maps where:

  • The key is an integer.
  • The value can be any type T.
  • The hash function is simply the identity function.1

A Simple Representation

We may be tempted to implement a DAT in terms of [Option<T>; N], where N is a usize representing the number of entries in the DAT. However, for reasons beyond the scope of this article2, an array of optional values is memory-inefficient. In the worst-case scenario, the [Option<T>; N] representation requires twice as much memory as the DAT we will be implementing.

RECALL: The Option type—like most data-carrying enum types in Rust—are essentially tagged unions. It is thus composed of two pieces of data: the payload and the discriminant/tag.

To make a long story short, most data types (especially those user-defined) require the enum discriminant to be stored separately from the inner data when wrapped in an Option (thereby increasing the memory footprint). In fact, this is generally true for all data-carrying enum types, not just for Option.

There are only a few exceptions to this rule. Namely, these include—but are not limited to—references (&T and &mut T), smart pointers (Box<T>, Rc<T>, Arc<T>, etc.), and the non-zero variants of the integer types (NonZeroU8, NonZeroU16, etc.).3

use core::{mem::size_of, num::NonZeroU32};

// We obtain 8 bytes here: 4 bytes for the actual `u32`
// plus 4 more bytes for the `enum` discriminant (which
// has been padded for alignment).
type Unoptimized = Option<u32>;
assert_eq!(size_of::<Unoptimized>(), 8);

// We obtain 4 bytes here. There is no need to explicitly
// store a discriminant because the value itself implicitly
// encodes it. That is, the "zero" value is treated as the
// `None` variant. Otherwise, the value is in the `Some` variant.
type Optimized = Option<NonZeroU32>;
assert_eq!(size_of::<Optimized>(), 4);
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From the example above, it should be apparent that the [Unoptimized; N] representation takes up twice as much memory as the [Optimized; N] representation for any size N. This happens to be the worst-case scenario, where the one-bit discriminant wastes too much space.

An Alternative Representation

Fortunately, not all hope is lost! Instead of using an array of optional values, we store the (potentially uninitialized) values in an array (as is). Then, we keep track of the initialized values via an integer bit mask. In doing so, we guarantee that all discriminants occupy at most one bit. This is better than the previous representation because we no longer waste bits on explicit discriminants.

// A neat wrapper that marks data as "maybe-uninitialized".
use core::mem::MaybeUninit;

// A block of 32 optional values.
pub struct Block32<T> {
    // An array of 32 "maybe-uninitialized" values.
    data: [MaybeUninit<T>; 32],
    // Since we have 32 values, we use an
    // unsigned 32-bit integer as our mask.
    // The least significant bit keeps track
    // of the discriminant at index `0`.
    mask: u32,
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Most notably, our new representation uses an array of "maybe-uninitialized" values. A value in the underlying array is initialized if (and only if) it is a valid entry in the DAT. The core::mem::MaybeUninit wrapper from the standard library facilitates this use case.

On Maybe-Uninitialized Memory

Before we proceed with the implementation, we must first consult the documentation for MaybeUninit regarding any safety invariants we must uphold. The most relevant features and safety measures are listed below:

  1. The MaybeUninit::<T>::assume_init method casts a MaybeUninit<T> to a T.
    • Analogously, the assume_init_ref method casts a &MaybeUninit<T> to a &T.
    • Meanwhile, the assume_init_mut method casts a &mut MaybeUninit<T> to a &mut T.
  2. The underlying inner type T must be properly initialized before invoking any of the assume_init methods.
    • Otherwise, the behavior is undefined due to usage of garbage memory.
  3. By default, MaybeUninit<T> (as is) does not drop the inner T—even if the inner value is properly initialized!
    • Since T may be uninitialized, we cannot assume that it is safe to call the destructor on potentially "garbage memory".
    • The standard library takes a conservative approach by not invoking the destructor at all. Thus, it is actually easy to leak memory!
    • There are two ways to drop the inner value:
      • Invoke the assume_init_drop method, which takes in a &mut MaybeUninit<T> and drops the inner T in-place.
      • Invoke the assume_init method on an owned MaybeUninit<T> and simply drop the resultant T (by leaving the current scope).
use core::mem::MaybeUninit;

// IMPORTANT: Accessing garbage memory is undefined behavior!
let uninit = MaybeUninit::<u32>::uninit();
let _ = unsafe { uninit.assume_init() }; // Garbage Memory!

// IMPORTANT: Improperly initialized values invoke undefined behavior!
// Recall that references can never be null.
let null_ref = MaybeUninit::<&u32>::zeroed();
let _ = unsafe { null_ref.assume_init() }; // Invalid Initialization!

// IMPORTANT: `MaybeUninit` (as is) does not invoke destructors.
let valid_string = MaybeUninit::new(String::from("Hello!"));
drop(valid_string); // Memory Leak!
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Implementing Some Basic Operations

We may now implement the DAT. First, we define a default constructor.


impl<T> Default for Block32<T> {
    fn default() -> Self {
        Self {
            // As of Rust 1.62, note that the `uninit_array` method
            // is a nightly-only feature. For the sake of brevity,
            // we will be using this function.
            // Alternatively, for stable toolchains, we may opt to
            // directly inline the definition for `uninit_array`
            // instead. Please consult the documentation accordingly.
            data: MaybeUninit::uninit_array(),
            // We then start with an empty mask.
            mask: 0,
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Then, we proceed to the easy, safe functions. The is_vacant method is particularly important because it will be extensively used for upholding safety.

impl<T> Block32<T> {
    // Checks whether the DAT is empty.
    pub const fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
        self.mask == 0

    // Returns the number of valid entries in the DAT.
    pub const fn len(&self) -> u32 {

    // Checks whether the slot at the `index` contains a
    // valid entry. Panics if the `index` is out of bounds.
    pub const fn is_vacant(&self, index: usize) -> bool {
        assert!(index < 32);
        let query = 1 << index;
        self.mask & query == 0
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Next, we implement the insert and remove methods. Since these methods interact with MaybeUninit, we need to be a bit more careful with the inevitable unsafe code.

It is best practice (ideally not just in Rust) to add a "safety comment" for all uses of unsafe code. As its name suggests, safety comments should explain why it is safe to invoke an unsafe procedure. Typically, it clarifies the (internal and external) invariants that are upheld before and after the procedure.

use core::mem::replace;

impl<T> Block32<T> {
    // Inserts a `value` at `index`. Returns the old value, if any.
    pub fn insert(&mut self, index: usize, value: T) -> Option<T> {
        // Extract the old value
        let wrapped = MaybeUninit::new(value);
        let old_vacant = self.is_vacant(index);
        let old_value = replace(&mut[index], wrapped);

        // Ensure that the bit in the mask is set to 1
        self.mask |= 1 << index;

        // Return the old value
        if old_vacant {
        } else {
            // SAFETY: Old value has been verified
            // to be properly initialized.
            Some(unsafe { old_value.assume_init() })

    // Removes a `value` at `index`. Returns the old value, if any.
    pub fn remove(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<T> {
        if self.is_vacant(index) {
            return None;

        // Extract the old value
        let dest = &mut[index];
        let old_value = replace(dest, MaybeUninit::uninit());

        // Ensure that the bit in the mask is reset to 0
        self.mask &= !(1 << index);

        // SAFETY: We have verified that the slot is not vacant.
        Some(unsafe { old_value.assume_init() })
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Finally, we implement the getter methods. These are relatively more straightforward because we do not have to think about mutating the internal bit mask.

impl<T> Block32<T> {
    // Immutably borrow the value at `index`.
    pub fn get(&self, index: usize) -> Option<&T> {
        if self.is_vacant(index) {
        } else {
            // SAFETY: Slot is initialized.
            Some(unsafe {[index].assume_init_ref() })

    // Mutably borrow the value at `index`.
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<&mut T> {
        if self.is_vacant(index) {
        } else {
            // SAFETY: Slot is initialized.
            Some(unsafe {[index].assume_init_mut() })
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Implementing Clone

We must now enable to user to clone the DAT as they please. Unfortunately, we cannot simply derive(Clone) in our implementation. Assuming that the inner type T implements Copy, the Clone implementation is surprisingly trivial.

//     `T` must implement `Copy`...
//     👇
impl<T: Copy> Clone for Block32<T> {
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        Self {
            // Recall that `MaybeUninit<T>` implements `Copy` if
            // (and only if) `T` implements `Copy` as well.
            // Therefore, a bitwise copy of an array of `T` values
            // should be trivial.
            // There are no extra lifetime considerations here since
            // `Copy` guarantees that `T` cannot implement a fancy
            // `Drop` implementation (stated in the documentation).
            mask: self.mask,
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However, there is one glaring issue with this approach. It is considerably uncommon for types to implement Copy! Ideally, we want to implement Clone for our DAT if (and only if) the inner type T implements Clone as well. Requiring Copy is just too restrictive!

Since we are relaxing the Copy bound to be just Clone, then a bitwise copy of the data is no longer correct. We must explicitly clone each T in data into the new DAT so that we invoke any extra (but necessary) cloning logic. For most types, a bitwise copy is sufficient; for others (such as String), extra cleanup and bookkeeping is necessary.

//     `T` is only required to implement `Clone` (not `Copy`).
//     This should be less restrictive and hence applicable to
//     more types...
//     👇
impl<T: Clone> Clone for Block32<T> {
    fn clone(&self) -> Self {
        let mut block = Self::default();
        block.mask = self.mask;

        for i in 0..32 {
            // Do not clone vacant slots
            if self.is_vacant(i) {

            // SAFETY: Slot is not vacant, and hence initialized.
            let value = unsafe {[i].assume_init_ref() };

            // Manually clone the data
  [i] = MaybeUninit::new(value.clone());

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Oh, no! Potential memory leaks!

Now there is one last important feature we need to implement. But first, we must demonstrate the problem. Consider the following code snippet.

let mut block = Block32::default();
block.insert(0, String::from("Hello"));
block.insert(1, String::from("World"));
block.insert(2, String::from("Rusty"));
drop(block); // Leaks "Hello" and "World"!
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This seemingly innocent code snippet actually leaks a lot of memory! Recall that MaybeUninit (as is) never invokes the destructor. To properly drop the value, we must first invoke assume_init to cast the MaybeUninit<T> as a T. The conversion to T enables the regular drop rules to apply.

Returning to the example, there are no issues with the insert and remove operations. Since they both invoke assume_init internally, each String is dropped properly when moved out of the block.

The memory leak happens when the block itself goes out of scope, but there are still some initialized elements left in the underlying array. Since no destructors are run, memory is certainly leaked. The solution, then, is to implement Drop for our DAT so that any remaining elements are properly destroyed.

impl<T> Drop for Block32<T> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        for i in 0..32 {
            // No more memory leaks! An `Option<T>` is dropped
            // here, which implies dropping the inner `T`, if any.
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Improved Memory Footprint

use core::{mem::size_of, num::NonZeroU8};

// 64 Bytes
type Unoptimized = [Option<u8>; 32];
assert_eq!(size_of::<Unoptimized>(), 32 * 2);

// 32 Bytes
type Optimized = [Option<NonZeroU8>; 32];
assert_eq!(size_of::<Optimized>(), 32);

// 36 Bytes
assert_eq!(size_of::<Block32<u8>>(), 32 + 4);
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In the worst-case scenario, the original "array-of-optional-values" representation requires 64 bytes of memory. Two bytes are allocated for each of the 32 entries: one byte for the actual u8 payload and another byte for the enum discriminant. This takes up twice as many bytes than necessary!

Meanwhile, the best-case scenario (using NonZeroU8) requires only 32 bytes of memory. Storing the enum discriminant is no longer necessary, which cuts the memory footprint by half! Unfortunately, most types are not eligible for this optimization anyway.

For such cases, our DAT implementation provides a reasonably close memory footprint to that of the best-case scenario. There is only the (arguably) negligible overhead that comes with the mandatory bit mask, which is nevertheless significantly better than the unoptimized version.


To be honest, I would love to conclude this article by asserting that unsafe code is not as scary as it seems. As we have seen, though, there is a lot to consider—even for our relatively simple example with MaybeUninit! By implementing a DAT, we have touched topics like uninitialized memory, destructors, bitwise copies, and explicit clones.

One may be tempted to scrap unsafe code altogether considering how unwieldly it is to implement low-level data structures. But... that's actually the point. Writing unsafe code is unwieldly because it is inherently tricky to get right! Languages that isolate unsafe code implore us to think more carefully.

It may be intimidating to see our code editors highlight the unsafe keyword, but as long as there are reasonable safety comments that follow, we may rest assured that careful considerations have taken place beforehand. Of course, this is not to say that all unsafe programmers are infallible. If an unsafety bug does occur, we know exactly where to look, which is not an assurance that most languages offer.

The common thread that ties everything together is documentation. Clear documentation of invariants supplement the language-level demarcation between safe abstractions and unsafe low-level operations. Ideally, it gives us a mental checklist of invariants to uphold like some kind of Unsafe Bingo. When the checklist is done, we may assert safety with a reasonable degree of confidence.

As we have seen with Rust's documentation, unsafe code can be accessible. The text is certainly not trivial, but it does not have to be scary. Although we must prefer safe abstractions in most cases, clear documentation empowers us to get our hands dirty when unsafe code becomes necessary.

Bonus: The option-block Crate

GitHub logo BastiDood / option-block

A minimal utility Rust crate for small, fixed-size blocks of optional types.

A Block of Optionals!

The option-block crate provides a simple primitive for fixed-size blocks of optional types. Formally speaking, it's a direct-address table with a fixed-size array as the storage medium.

Importantly, this is not to be confused with the popular slab crate, which internally uses the dynamically-sized, heap-allocated Vec. Although both crates provide indexed accesses and map-like features, option-block operates at a lower level.

Specifically, option-block does not keep track of the next empty slot in the allocation upon insertion (unlike slab). Instead, option-block is simply a wrapper around an array and a bit mask. The array contains the (maybe uninitialized) data while the bit mask keeps track of the valid (i.e. initialized) entries in the allocation. Again, it's basically a direct-address table.

This crate is compatible with no_std environments! Neither std nor alloc is necessary.


let mut block = option_block::Block8::<
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For your convenience, I published the option-block crate, which includes the 8-, 16-, 32-, 64-, and 128-element variants of the fixed-size block of optionals we have implemented in this article. These variants are respectively named Block8, Block16, Block32, Block64, and Block128.

The crate also adds some extra methods that make our DAT's public API more compatible with the standard collections. Among these features are iterators4 and convenience getters (get_or, get_or_else, and get_or_default).

With that said, please feel free to raise issues and submit pull requests!

  1. In other words, the key to the map is literally an index into the underlying array storage. 

  2. See the nullable pointer optimization

  3. Observe that all of these types have one thing in common: the discriminant is implicitly encoded by the value. References can never be invalid, so the compiler encodes None::<&T> as the null pointer. The same reasoning applies to Box<T>, which are also never null. Similarly, for non-zero integers, the literal zero is used to encode the None variant. Since the discriminant is implicit, the compiler optimizes the memory representation by excluding the discriminant overhead. 

  4. As of writing, I have not yet implemented the iter_mut method. 

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