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Practical Rust Web Development - GraphQL

werner profile image Werner Echezuría ・6 min read

According to the official homepage, GraphQL is a query language for APIs and a runtime for fulfilling those queries with your existing data. GraphQL provides a complete and understandable description of the data in your API, gives clients the power to ask for exactly what they need and nothing more, makes it easier to evolve APIs over time, and enables powerful developer tools.

One advantage of GraphQL is the flexibility it provides, in one query you can obtain everything you need allowing easy maintenance of the code over time and easier communication between the server and the client.

Juniper is a crate that allows the creation of a GraphQL server, we'll be using it in our project.

Let's continue with our online store, we're going to need to control our sales in the site, so, let's create a sales module that will receive a GraphQL query.

migrations/2019-07-28-191653_add_sales/up.sql:

CREATE TABLE sales (
  id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
  user_id INTEGER NOT NULL REFERENCES users(id) ON DELETE CASCADE,
  sale_date DATE NOT NULL,
  total FLOAT NOT NULL
);

CREATE TABLE sale_products (
  id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
  product_id INTEGER NOT NULL REFERENCES products(id) ON DELETE CASCADE,
  sale_id INTEGER NOT NULL REFERENCES sales(id) ON DELETE CASCADE,
  amount FLOAT NOT NULL,
  discount INTEGER NOT NULL,
  tax INTEGER NOT NULL,
  price INTEGER NOT NULL, --representing cents
  total FLOAT NOT NULL
)

Then, we're gonna need the endpoint that will receive all our queries, this would be a post request.

src/graphql.rs:


pub fn graphql(
    st: web::Data<Arc<Schema>>,
    data: web::Json<GraphQLRequest>,
    user: LoggedUser,
    pool: web::Data<PgPool>
) -> impl Future<Item = HttpResponse, Error = Error> {
    web::block(move || {
        let pg_pool = pool
            .get()
            .map_err(|e| {
                serde_json::Error::custom(e)
            })?;

        let ctx = create_context(user.id, pg_pool);

        let res = data.execute(&st, &ctx);
        Ok::<_, serde_json::error::Error>(serde_json::to_string(&res)?)
    })
    .map_err(Error::from)
    .and_then(|user| {
        Ok(HttpResponse::Ok()
            .content_type("application/json")
            .body(user))
    })
}

src/main.rs:

    HttpServer::new(
    move || App::new()
        .service(
            web::resource("/graphql").route(web::post().to_async(graphql))
        )

In order to output a response that reads the data we need a query, but if we need to modify state we'll be needing a mutation, let's add both resources in our sales module.

src/models/sale.rs:

use diesel::PgConnection;
use diesel::BelongingToDsl;
use diesel::sql_types;
use chrono::NaiveDate;
use juniper::{FieldResult};
use crate::schema;
use crate::schema::sales;
use crate::schema::sale_products;
use crate::db_connection::PgPooledConnection;
use crate::models::product::{ Product, PRODUCT_COLUMNS };
use crate::errors::MyStoreError;

#[derive(Identifiable, Queryable, Debug, Clone, PartialEq)]
#[table_name="sales"]
#[derive(juniper::GraphQLObject)]
#[graphql(description="Sale Bill")]
pub struct Sale {
    pub id: i32,
    pub user_id: i32,
    pub sale_date: NaiveDate,
    pub total: f64,
    pub bill_number: Option<String>
}

#[derive(Insertable, Deserialize, Serialize, AsChangeset, Debug, Clone, PartialEq)]
#[table_name="sales"]
#[derive(juniper::GraphQLInputObject)]
#[graphql(description="Sale Bill")]
pub struct NewSale {
    pub id: Option<i32>,
    pub sale_date: Option<NaiveDate>,
    pub user_id: Option<i32>,
    pub total: Option<f64>,
    pub bill_number: Option<String>
}

use crate::models::sale_product::{ SaleProduct, NewSaleProduct, NewSaleProducts, FullSaleProduct,FullNewSaleProduct };

#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
#[derive(juniper::GraphQLObject)]
pub struct FullSale {
    pub sale: Sale,
    pub sale_products: Vec<FullSaleProduct>
}

#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
#[derive(juniper::GraphQLObject)]
pub struct FullNewSale {
    pub sale: NewSale,
    pub sale_products: Vec<FullNewSaleProduct>
}

#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
#[derive(juniper::GraphQLObject)]
pub struct ListSale {
    pub data: Vec<FullSale>
}

use std::sync::Arc;

pub struct Context {
    pub user_id: i32,
    pub conn: Arc<PgPooledConnection>,
}

impl juniper::Context for Context {}

pub struct Query;

type BoxedQuery<'a> = 
    diesel::query_builder::BoxedSelectStatement<'a, (sql_types::Integer,
                                                     sql_types::Integer,
                                                     sql_types::Date,
                                                     sql_types::Float8,
                                                     sql_types::Nullable<sql_types::Text>
                                                     ),
                                                     schema::sales::table, diesel::pg::Pg>;

impl Sale {
    fn searching_records<'a>(search: Option<NewSale>) -> BoxedQuery<'a> {
        use diesel::QueryDsl;
        use diesel::ExpressionMethods;
        use crate::schema::sales::dsl::*;

        let mut query = schema::sales::table.into_boxed::<diesel::pg::Pg>();

        if let Some(sale) = search {
            if let Some(sale_sale_date) = sale.sale_date {
                query = query.filter(sale_date.eq(sale_sale_date));
            }
            if let Some(sale_bill_number) = sale.bill_number {
                query = query.filter(bill_number.eq(sale_bill_number));
            }
        }

        query
    }
}

#[juniper::object(
    Context = Context,
)]
impl Query {

    fn listSale(context: &Context, search: Option<NewSale>, limit: i32) 
        -> FieldResult<ListSale> {
            use diesel::{ QueryDsl, RunQueryDsl, ExpressionMethods, GroupedBy };
            use crate::models::sale_product::SaleProduct;
            let conn: &PgConnection = &context.conn;
            let query = Sale::searching_records(search);

            let query_sales: Vec<Sale> =
                query
                    .filter(sales::dsl::user_id.eq(context.user_id))
                    .limit(limit.into())
                    .load::<Sale>(conn)?;

            let query_products = 
                schema::products::table
                    .inner_join(schema::sale_products::table)
                    .select((PRODUCT_COLUMNS, 
                            (schema::sale_products::id, 
                             schema::sale_products::product_id, 
                             schema::sale_products::sale_id, 
                             schema::sale_products::amount,
                             schema::sale_products::discount,
                             schema::sale_products::tax,
                             schema::sale_products::price,
                             schema::sale_products::total)))
                    .load::<(Product, SaleProduct)>(conn)?;

            let query_sale_products = 
                SaleProduct::belonging_to(&query_sales)
                    .inner_join(schema::products::table)
                    .select(((schema::sale_products::id, 
                             schema::sale_products::product_id, 
                             schema::sale_products::sale_id, 
                             schema::sale_products::amount,
                             schema::sale_products::discount,
                             schema::sale_products::tax,
                             schema::sale_products::price,
                             schema::sale_products::total),
                             PRODUCT_COLUMNS))
                    .load::<(SaleProduct, Product)>(conn)?
                    .grouped_by(&query_sales);

            let tuple_full_sale: Vec<(Sale, Vec<(SaleProduct, Product)>)> = 
                query_sales
                    .into_iter()
                    .zip(query_sale_products)
                    .collect::<Vec<(Sale, Vec<(SaleProduct, Product)>)>>();

            let vec_full_sale = tuple_full_sale.iter().map (|tuple_sale| {
                let full_sale_product = tuple_sale.1.iter().map(|tuple_sale_product| {
                    FullSaleProduct {
                        sale_product: tuple_sale_product.0.clone(),
                        product: tuple_sale_product.1.clone()
                    }
                }).collect();
                FullSale {
                    sale: tuple_sale.0.clone(),
                    sale_products: full_sale_product
                }
            }).collect();

            Ok(ListSale { data: vec_full_sale })
        }

    fn sale(context: &Context, sale_id: i32) -> FieldResult<FullSale> {
        use diesel::{ ExpressionMethods, QueryDsl, RunQueryDsl };

        let conn: &PgConnection = &context.conn;
        let sale: Sale =
            schema::sales::table
                .filter(sales::dsl::user_id.eq(context.user_id))
                .find(sale_id)
                .first::<Sale>(conn)?;

        let sale_products = 
            SaleProduct::belonging_to(&sale)
                .inner_join(schema::products::table)
                .select(((schema::sale_products::id, 
                            schema::sale_products::product_id, 
                            schema::sale_products::sale_id, 
                            schema::sale_products::amount,
                            schema::sale_products::discount,
                            schema::sale_products::tax,
                            schema::sale_products::price,
                            schema::sale_products::total),
                            PRODUCT_COLUMNS))
                .load::<(SaleProduct, Product)>(conn)?
                .iter()
                .map(|tuple| {
                    FullSaleProduct {
                        sale_product: tuple.0.clone(),
                        product: tuple.1.clone()
                    }
                })
                .collect();
        Ok(FullSale{ sale, sale_products })
    }
}

pub struct Mutation;

#[juniper::object(
    Context = Context,
)]
impl Mutation {

    fn createSale(context: &Context, param_new_sale: NewSale, param_new_sale_products: NewSaleProducts) 
        -> FieldResult<FullSale> {
            use diesel::{ RunQueryDsl, Connection, QueryDsl };

            let conn: &PgConnection = &context.conn;

            let new_sale = NewSale {
                user_id: Some(context.user_id),
                ..param_new_sale
            };

            conn.transaction(|| {
                let sale = 
                    diesel::insert_into(schema::sales::table)
                        .values(new_sale)
                        .returning(
                            (
                                sales::dsl::id,
                                sales::dsl::user_id,
                                sales::dsl::sale_date,
                                sales::dsl::total,
                                sales::dsl::bill_number
                            )
                        )
                        .get_result::<Sale>(conn)?;

                let sale_products: Result<Vec<FullSaleProduct>, _> =
                    param_new_sale_products.data.into_iter().map(|param_new_sale_product| {
                        let new_sale_product = NewSaleProduct {
                            sale_id: Some(sale.id),
                            ..param_new_sale_product.sale_product
                        };
                        let sale_product =
                            diesel::insert_into(schema::sale_products::table)
                                .values(new_sale_product)
                                .returning(
                                    (
                                        sale_products::dsl::id,
                                        sale_products::dsl::product_id,
                                        sale_products::dsl::sale_id,
                                        sale_products::dsl::amount,
                                        sale_products::dsl::discount,
                                        sale_products::dsl::tax,
                                        sale_products::dsl::price,
                                        sale_products::dsl::total
                                    )
                                )
                                .get_result::<SaleProduct>(conn);

                        if let Some(param_product_id) = param_new_sale_product.sale_product.product_id {
                            let product = 
                                schema::products::table
                                    .select(PRODUCT_COLUMNS)
                                    .find(param_product_id)
                                    .first(conn);

                            Ok(
                                FullSaleProduct {
                                     sale_product: sale_product?, 
                                     product: product? 
                                }
                            )
                        } else {
                            Err(MyStoreError::PGConnectionError)
                        }
                    }).collect();

                Ok(FullSale{ sale, sale_products: sale_products? })
            })
        }


    fn updateSale(context: &Context, param_sale: NewSale, param_sale_products: NewSaleProducts) 
        -> FieldResult<FullSale> {
            use diesel::QueryDsl;
            use diesel::RunQueryDsl;
            use diesel::ExpressionMethods;
            use diesel::Connection;
            use crate::schema::sales::dsl;

            let conn: &PgConnection = &context.conn;
            let sale_id = param_sale.id.ok_or(
                diesel::result::Error::QueryBuilderError("missing id".into())
            )?;

            conn.transaction(|| {
                let sale = 
                    diesel::update(dsl::sales
                                       .filter(dsl::user_id.eq(context.user_id))
                                       .find(sale_id))
                        .set(&param_sale)
                        .get_result::<Sale>(conn)?;

                let sale_products: Result<Vec<FullSaleProduct>, _> =
                    param_sale_products.data.into_iter().map (|param_sale_product| {
                        let sale_product =
                            diesel::update(schema::sale_products::table)
                                .set(&param_sale_product.sale_product)
                                .get_result::<SaleProduct>(conn);

                        if let Some(param_product_id) = param_sale_product.sale_product.product_id {
                            let product = 
                                schema::products::table
                                    .select(PRODUCT_COLUMNS)
                                    .find(param_product_id)
                                    .first(conn);

                            Ok(
                                FullSaleProduct {
                                     sale_product: sale_product?, 
                                     product: product? 
                                }
                            )
                        } else {
                            Err(MyStoreError::PGConnectionError)
                        }

                    }).collect();

                Ok(FullSale{ sale, sale_products: sale_products? })
            })
        }

    fn destroySale(context: &Context, sale_id: i32) 
        -> FieldResult<i32> {
            use diesel::QueryDsl;
            use diesel::RunQueryDsl;
            use diesel::ExpressionMethods;
            use crate::schema::sales::dsl;

            let conn: &PgConnection = &context.conn;
            diesel::delete(dsl::sales.filter(dsl::user_id.eq(context.user_id)).find(sale_id))
                .execute(conn)?;
            Ok(sale_id)
        }
}

pub type Schema = juniper::RootNode<'static, Query, Mutation>;

pub fn create_schema() -> Schema {
    Schema::new(Query {}, Mutation {})
}

pub fn create_context(logged_user_id: i32, pg_pool: PgPooledConnection) -> Context {
    Context { user_id: logged_user_id, conn: Arc::new(pg_pool)}
} 

As you can see our business logic is very similar to a REST endpoint, what could change is the way we query the data, we then export the schema using create_schema function.

src/main.rs:

 let schema = std::sync::Arc::new(create_schema());

    HttpServer::new(
    move || App::new()
        .data(schema.clone())

Now, how can we fetch the data and performs our mutation?, we then need to write some tests and see if everything works as expected.

tests/sale_test.rs:

...
// create a sale:
        let query = 
            format!(
            r#"
            {{
                "query": "
                    mutation CreateSale($paramNewSale: NewSale!, $paramNewSaleProducts: NewSaleProducts!) {{
                            createSale(paramNewSale: $paramNewSale, paramNewSaleProducts: $paramNewSaleProducts) {{
                                sale {{
                                    id
                                    userId
                                    saleDate
                                    total
                                }}
                                saleProducts {{
                                    product {{
                                        name
                                    }}
                                    saleProduct {{
                                        id
                                        productId
                                        amount
                                        discount
                                        tax
                                        price
                                        total
                                    }}
                                }}
                            }}
                    }}
                ",
                "variables": {{
                    "paramNewSale": {{
                        "saleDate": "{}",
                        "total": {}
                    }},
                    "paramNewSaleProducts": {{
                        "data":
                            [{{
                                "product": {{ }},
                                "saleProduct": {{
                                    "amount": {},
                                    "discount": {},
                                    "price": {},
                                    "productId": {},
                                    "tax": {},
                                    "total": {}
                                }}
                            }}]
                    }}
                }}
            }}"#,
...

// show a sale:

       let query = format!(r#"
            {{
                "query": "
                    query ShowASale($saleId: Int!) {{
                        sale(saleId: $saleId) {{
                            sale {{
                                id
                                userId
                                saleDate
                                total
                            }}
                            saleProducts {{
                                product {{ name }}
                                saleProduct {{
                                    id
                                    productId
                                    amount
                                    discount
                                    tax
                                    price
                                    total
                                }}
                            }}
                        }}
                    }}
                ",
                "variables": {{
                    "saleId": {}
                }}
            }}
        "#, id).replace("\n", "");

...

// update a sale

        let query = 
            format!(
            r#"
            {{
                "query": "
                    mutation UpdateSale($paramSale: NewSale!, $paramSaleProducts: NewSaleProducts!) {{
                            updateSale(paramSale: $paramSale, paramSaleProducts: $paramSaleProducts) {{
                                sale {{
                                    id
                                    saleDate
                                    total
                                }}
                                saleProducts {{
                                    product {{ name }}
                                    saleProduct {{
                                        id
                                        productId
                                        amount
                                        discount
                                        tax
                                        price
                                        total
                                    }}
                                }}
                            }}
                    }}
                ",
                "variables": {{
                    "paramSale": {{
                        "id": {},
                        "saleDate": "{}",
                        "total": {}
                    }},
                    "paramSaleProducts": {{
                        "data":
                            [{{
                                "product": {{}},
                                "saleProduct": 
                                {{
                                    "amount": {},
                                    "discount": {},
                                    "price": {},
                                    "productId": {},
                                    "tax": {},
                                    "total": {}
                                }}
                            }}]
                    }}
                }}
            }}"#

...

// delete a sale:

        let query = format!(r#"
            {{
                "query": "
                    mutation DestroyASale($saleId: Int!) {{
                        destroySale(saleId: $saleId)
                    }}
                ",
                "variables": {{
                    "saleId": {}
                }}
            }}
        "#, id).replace("\n", "");
...

// search for a sale with specific date:

       let query = format!(r#"
            {{
                "query": "
                    query ListSale($search: NewSale!, $limit: Int!) {{
                        listSale(search: $search, limit: $limit) {{
                            data {{
                                sale {{
                                    id
                                    saleDate
                                    total
                                }}
                                saleProducts {{
                                    product {{
                                        name
                                    }}
                                    saleProduct {{
                                        amount
                                        price
                                    }}
                                }}
                            }}
                        }}
                    }}
                ",
                "variables": {{
                    "search": {{
                        "saleDate": "2019-11-10"
                    }},
                    "limit": 10
                }}
            }}
        "#).replace("\n", "");

You can take a look at the full source code here.

Discussion

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gklijs profile image
Gerard Klijs

Nice, especially the code. I'm still waiting for github.com/graphql-rust/juniper/is... support for subscriptions. I need it to be able to be feature complete with the same thing currently in Clojure.