Teaching styles have been developing since recent century. One of the most famous and
bonanza teaching styles is COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING(CLT). This style has been developing during long period that
exposure different stages and experience. Main purpose of the CLT is communicating with others that more emphasizes to learning and communication skills while grammar is not so important.
In this approach teachers can start with question like ,,Tell me about your last vacation, last weekday, about their interest or about their favorite book " and students start their lesson with telling and sharing something interesting(ex.1). It improves students' confidence and communicating skills. However, a generation ago(and still in many parts of the world today) teaching and learning another language were often more concerned with language analysis, literary text analysis, memorize, translation or multiple choice language testing.
Another way of CLT's teaching style is choosing one topic and giving questions, tasks and vocabulary based on only this domain. For example, theme is about sport and teachers’ question might be who is your favorite athlete, what is your favorite football team, have you ever been in stadium or which kind of sports do you like best. Furthermore, they can use topic vocabulary repeatedly like stadium, sport events, running, jumping or playing something(ex.2). In first experience, teachers have students communicating in English, to the extent possible or desirable, about their personal experiences, opinion and interests. Seconds, they discuss students' knowledge and understanding of sport.
Conceptual underpinnings of CLT
In this approach, learning and teaching communicative ways began in the 1970. In initial examples, students discuss about past events and leisure activities like experience 1 and about some of the specific topic like experience 2. For being able to effective speakers in their second language, students need to learn how to describe their requests, categorize and classify items, having knowledge about some problems and their solution, using grammar correctly and persuade people for doing something. With one word they need practice more and taking more experience.
**`How does CLT relate to other proficiency-based approach to language teaching`**
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) suggested model of teaching on CLT called *Standards for Foreign Language Learning for the 21 Century which consists five components.
Communication: fostering communication within and across cultures (oral and written)
- Cultures: encouraging the development of deep cultural understanding and insight.
- Connection: forging connection with other disciplines and information sources.
- Comparison: facilitating metalinguistic and metacultural understanding by comparing one’s own and the target language.
- Communities: making connection with multilingual communities of target-target language speakers neat and far and becoming lifelong learners.
Every component demands some specific knowledge but built on communication. This model widely used in particularly lower levels in late twenties century.
Other curricular program types compatible with CLT
Content-based language teaching. Students are taught from intermediate to advanced in this type of learning when English is spoken as secondary language (like Russian in Uzbekistan).
** Academic/professional purposes language teaching**. This teaching style is for people who related to academic or professional domains(specific occupational, vocational, scientific or academic) . For this reason, in this style students learn high level oral and written communication.
Service learning. This teaching style based on helping others. Student are encouraged to use their knowledge for helping others and practice during conversation.
Additional examples of CLT in TESOL.
- Teaching young generation with CLT is little bit different from other aspects. For instance, teacher can ask about today’s weather and use topic vocabulary like warm, cold, hot, humid. Teachers can show some kind of actions related to feeling weather (like freezing or sweating) and children try to find this word. In addition, teacher use some kind of pictures that related to students’ daily routine or pupils’ lifestyle and they learn new words and how they can use during their life.
- English for academic purposes defer from other which student usually learn at a university. This style consists discuss and listen to news, community or social problems with other people. This kind of discussion might about worldwide problems (like global warming or war between Ukraine and Russia) or problems about daily life (like facing traffic jams or keeping fit).
Information and communication technologies and CLT
XXI century is technological era that we can find development of domains because of new technologies. Language education is no exception. As we mentioned lots of time CLT’s main purpose is make conversation well. New technologies make it very easy that students converse with other people freely through the Internet, even with natives. They can find authentic sources like books, videos, documentaries or English blogs from the Internet. New technologies give enormous opportunities for CLT teachers, as well.
Teaching English has different ways and approaches. However, nowadays linguists are trying to find which should be suitable for students’ cultural, religion or locational aspects. Because, English is teaching worldwide, nowadays and every aspect is important for teaching and learning well.
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