Imagine you are working on a Laravel side-project or you just joined a team working on a Laravel application, and it currently doesn’t have a single test. You want to change that, and add tests to the application. If you find yourself in this situation, you might not even know where to start. “Should I unit test everything? Should I just test the most critical parts of the application?” You might even find yourself asking “Why do I need tests in the first place?”
I am writing an ebook to answer all these questions for you, and this is the introductory chapter. My main goal with this ebook is to try to answer these questions, and I will describe my process in writing tests for some of the Laravel applications I’m working on (mainly CRUD applications).
What you are going to read in this chapter and the following ones might not necessarily be the optimal way of testing or even the best practice, but rather just one possible way of doing testing in Laravel [CRUD] applications, the way I am approaching testing these days.
For me, testing is just like physical exercise. We all know that we should be exercising (or exercising more), but very few of us exercise on a regular basis, if at all.
Many people decide they’ll be exercising every single day as part of their new year resolution. They get a yearly subscription at their local gym to prove how serious they are, they might even hit the gym 5 days in a row the first week of the year. But after the first weekend, they start going less and less, and end up just giving up because their body aches so much and they don’t see any improvement yet (they worked out for a WHOLE week, they should at least notice a quick drop in their weights, no?). The other scenario is that they might feel overwhelmed with all the choices they find at the gym: Should I focus just on cardio? Maybe lift some weights? Or maybe I should do both? Maybe I’ll just focus on my biceps… A classic case of paralysis by analysis.
Almost the same thing happens with developers and testing.
With every new project, they decide they’ll unit test the sh*t out of it. They decide to test every single class and method (even the private ones), they would even buy some ebooks or online courses to learn how to implement a testing approach in their project.
They’ll start implementing TDD, for instance, in the first week of the project, but after the first weekend passes by, they’ll start thinking about giving up. Not only they don’t see any improvement in their development process or in the end results (they have been TDDing everything for a whole week for God’s sake), but also they’ll start writing tests for just a method or two on each class, and then start to question if this approach is the right one or if they should try something else entirely, and then, the inevitable happens, they drop everything.
In other words, testing is just like exercising, we tend to think that we should do it perfectly (exercising every single day), or we shouldn’t bother at all. When in reality, all what we need is some good practices, and a change in the way we view and approach testing. We have to understand why we need tests in the first place, and learn how we can get the most out of them without doing too much.
If you ask this question to a group of developers, you might not get the same answer twice. Personally, I write tests for one simple reason: to make sure that the application will keep working in the exact same way it was intended to when each piece of it was written. In other words, each time I introduce a new change to the code base or add new feature, I want to make sure that I’m not breaking any current functionalities.
If you think about it, each time you introduce a change and you start testing your app in the browser, you are just checking that everything is still working. The method I’m describing here will just help you automate this whole process, i.e instead of opening random pages in the app to see whether they are still working, you execute your test suite, and confirm that everything is still working as expected.
Let me repeat it one more time, since this is really important, and all what follows is built upon this idea: write tests to make sure that the current functionalities keep working as expected when we introduce changes
In other words, testing should not be about proving that the code is 100% correct, all we need is to make sure that we are not going to break it or change its behavior in the future.
As you can probably tell from the description above, we should be testing only controllers in this phase. If you think about it, if all the controllers are behaving exactly how they are supposed to, it is most likely that all the underlying code of the application (models, repositories, services…) is working just fine, unless your test suite doesn’t cover all the use cases of the controllers.
What I don’t like in the majority of online resource about testing, is that they present each idea/concept in isolation. When usually, especially for a beginner, it is hard to tell how all these concepts fit together.
So instead of doing this, I’ll be adding tests to a small demo application I built for the purpose of this ebook.
It is a small application that allows users to sign up, and post articles. Each user can edit and delete their own articles, and read what other users post on the website.
The application is simple, but as you’ll see in the upcoming chapters, it contains enough code/functionalities to demonstrate all the necessary ideas you would need in testing almost any Laravel CRUD application.
If you are interested, and you want to follow along, please visit laraveltesting101.com and sign up. You’ll be notified every time I publish something new.