Algorithm is a finite sequence of clearly defined instructions, which has as goal to execute a task. This concept will carry you during all your journey in programming.
This, for example, is an algorithm for studying:
Open book Read chapter 5 Solve exercises Ask questions
Those are two more of the most basic and important concepts in the universe of programming. Mastering those concepts, you will have much more ease learning any programming language.
This is how the computers make decisions, testing if data combined to logical operators generate the wanted result.
This concept represents the many ways that a program can organize data, like queues or stacks.
Programming is a very broad subject and technologies are changing all the time. Learning is a lengthy process, but it will give you great results.
If you have difficulties at any moment, don't give up. That happens to everybody. Even with experienced programmers.