For several years now, I've been using IP addresses and ports to access services that I run on my home server. However, I decided it was time to switch to using a domain instead. I had heard about Traefik and Caddy
in r/HomeServer and r/homelab](https://www.reddit.com/r/homelab/) and chose to try out Traefik, mainly because it had native support for Docker labels.
The first few steps involved installing Traefik with Docker, adding HTTPS support through Let's Encrypt, and reconfiguring my web containers to use it. The next step was to add a dnsmasq rule to my Pi-hole so that all requests would be redirected to the subdomain I chose (I used
servername.mydomain.com as the base host in Traefik). However, on my Mac, I'm not always using my Pi-hole's DNS, usually when I need to circumvent the ad-blocking. I accomplish this through macOS' native support for network locations.
After doing a bit of research, I found out I could use dnsmasq on my Mac to do accomplish wildcard subdomains, just like I did on the Pi-hole, and it worked wonderfully once I got it to work.
I used Homebrew to install and configure dnsmasq:
brew install dnsmasq. I then opened the configuration file for dnsmasq from its place in
/usr/local/etc/dnsmasq.conf and added the line below. If you changed the location of your Homebrew install, run
brew --prefix, then replace
/usr/local with the value.
This line configures the routing, and redirects all requests made to
servername.mydomain.com and its subdomains to
10.90.100.1. Make sure to replace
10.90.100.1 with the IP you want to redirect to. If you're interested in knowing why dnsmasq redirects all redirects to both the base domain and its subdomains to the IP, this Stack Overflow answer explains why.
To start dnsmasq, run
sudo brew services start dnsmasq. Homebrew will handle autostarting the daemon and ensuring it stays alive. I found this to be simpler than the common method of copying the Homebrew launch daemon plist to
/Library/LaunchDaemons and manually telling
launchctl to load it.
If you were to try running a command such as
ping to see if your wildcard subdomain redirection worked, you'd be sorely disappointed, because there are two more steps. Create a folder in
resolver, and place a file in there. The file can be named anything, but I like to use the hostname of my computer. In that file, add
nameserver 127.0.0.1. This tells macOS' DNS resolution to use your new dnsmasq as a DNS server. For example, I would run
sudo mkdir /etc/resolver, then
sudo bash -c 'echo "nameserver 127.0.0.1" > /etc/resolver/my-computer-hostname'. Verify that the entry was added with
scutil --dns. An output similar to the following should be shown.
domain : my-computer-hostname
nameserver : 127.0.0.1
flags : Request A records, Request AAAA records
reach : 0x00030002 (Reachable,Local Address,Directly Reachable Address)
After that, add the DNS server to macOS via the Network panel in System Preferences or the Wi-Fi panel in System Settings. If your Mac is running Ventura or newer, click "Details", otherwise click "Advanced". Then, navigate to the "DNS" tab. Click the plus button and type in
127.0.0.1 and then hit enter. For more information on
127.0.0.1, check out its Wikipedia article. Back to System Preferences, click the OK button, then click Apply. If you're running Ventura or newer, just click the OK button and it will save and apply the settings. Once the icon is disabled and greyed out, flush your DNS cache. You can do that with
sudo dscacheutil -flushcache and
sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder. Now, try your
ping command again, and you should get a response. If it does, try accessing the service through your browser.
I hope that this article is useful for you! Thank you for reading!