It's easy to create an infinite loop in Haskell.

```
main = mapM_ print [1..]
-- 1
-- 2
-- 3
-- ...
```

Of course, you can create infinite loops in other languages as well with `while(1)`

, but can you `break`

and escape from the infinite loop as you do in an imperative programming language?

Here's how we can do it in Haskell.

```
import Control.Monad.Cont
main :: IO ()
main = do
putStrLn "Start"
withBreak $ \break ->
forM_ [1..] $ \i -> do
liftIO . putStrLn $ "Loop: " ++ show i
when (i == 5) $ break ()
putStrLn "End"
where
withBreak = flip runContT pure . callCC
```

and run it.

```
$ runhaskell Main.hs
Start
Loop: 1
Loop: 2
Loop: 3
Loop: 4
Loop: 5
End
```

Most important part is here.

```
withBreak $ \break ->
forM_ [1..] $ \i -> do
liftIO . putStrLn $ "Loop: " ++ show i
when (i == 5) $ break ()
```

Here is the same code in `C`

.

```
int i = 0;
while (1) {
i++;
printf("Loop: %d\n", i);
if (i == 5) break;
}
```

I'll explain `withBreak`

later in this article. `forM_`

is implemented simply as a function with flipped `mapM_`

arguments.

```
forM_ :: (Monad m) => [a] -> (a -> m b) -> m ()
forM_ = flip mapM_
```

`liftIO`

is a function for using IO actions in `withBreak`

, and `when`

executes the second argument only when the condition of the first argument is satisfied.

The list passed to `forM_`

is `[1..]`

, which is indeed an infinite list, but as you can see in the execution result, the process ends with `break`

.

First, let's look at the implementation of `withBreak`

.

```
withBreak = flip runContT pure . callCC
```

The two most important ones are `runContT`

and `callCC`

.

```
runContT :: ContT r m a -> (a -> m r) -> m r
callCC :: ((a -> ContT r m b) -> ContT r m a) -> ContT r m a
```

`ContT`

is called a continuation monad, which is a monad that can handle subsequent calculations.

In fact, the `break`

in `withBreak $ \break -> ...`

just throws away the subsequent calculation.

Let's break down `withBreak`

further to understand what's going on here. First of all, `ContT`

is defined like this, which is just isomorphic to `(a -> m r) -> m r`

.

```
newtype ContT r m a = ContT { runContT :: (a -> m r) -> m r }
```

The implementation of `callCC`

is

```
callCC :: ((a -> ContT r m b) -> ContT r m a) -> ContT r m a
callCC f = ContT $ \ c -> runContT (f (\ x -> ContT $ \ _ -> c x)) c
```

, but if you try hard to rewrite it using isomorphic, it becomes

```
callCC :: ((a -> (b -> m r) -> m r) -> (a -> m r) -> m r) -> (a -> m r) -> m r
callCC f c = f (\x _ -> c x) c
```

. The type has become more complex, but the implementation has become very easy. With this, `withBreak`

will be

```
withBreak :: ((a -> (b -> m r) -> m r) -> (a -> m r) -> m r) -> m r
withBreak f = f (\x _ -> pure x) pure
```

. The correspondence to `f`

in the first program is `\break -> ...`

. Finally, it turns out that `break`

is

```
break :: a -> (b -> m r) -> m r
break = \x _ -> pure x
```

.

Let's go back to the continuation monad again. The implementation of the `ContT`

monad is as follows.

```
instance Monad (ContT r m) where
return x = ContT ($ x)
m >>= k = ContT $ \c -> runContT m (\x -> runContT (k x) c)
```

Let's rewrite `>>=`

according to isomorphic of `ContT`

.

```
(>>=) :: ((a -> m r) -> m r) -> (a -> ((b -> m r) -> m r)) -> (b -> m r) -> m r
m >>= k = \c -> m (\x -> (k x) c)
```

Again, the type is more complex, but the implementation is easier to read. If you look at the implementation, you'll see that it evaluates `k`

and then uses that value to evaluate `m`

.

Now that we are ready, let's consider the following expression to see the behavior of `break`

.

```
actionA >> break () >> actionB
```

First, expand the `>>`

on the left side.

```
(\c -> actionA (\_ -> break () c)) >> actionB
```

Next, expand `break`

.

```
(\c -> actionA (\_ -> pure ()) >> actionB
```

At this point, we can see that the subsequent calculation `c`

has disappeared.

Expand the last remaining `>>`

.

```
\c -> actionA (\_ -> pure ())
```

`actionB`

has disappeared nicely.

Finally, let's go back to the first program.

```
withBreak $ \break ->
forM_ [1..] $ \i -> do
liftIO . putStrLn $ "Loop: " ++ show i
when (i == 5) $ break ()
```

As we've already seen, once `i`

reached 5 and `break`

was evaluated, the infinite calculations that followed were discarded.

## Discussion

Interesting, I once needed to break out of an possible infinite effectfull loop so I've write an apomorphism based on the free monad