loading...

Client-side caching with Angular

maurogarcia_19 profile image Mauro Garcia Updated on ・3 min read

The time it takes our applications to show useful information for our users has a great impact on the user experience. That's why I think it's our responsibility as software developers to implement mechanisms that allow us to reduce this loading time as much as possible.

In this article, I'm gonna show you how to implement client-side caching with Angular.
By the end of this post, you'll be able to cache your http request like this:

return this._http.get<Product[]>({ url: 'https://example-api/products', cacheMins: 5 })

For this implementation, we'll need:

  • A cache service: This service will be required for two main things:
    • Save data in the localstorage (with expiration)
    • Load data from the localstorage.
  • A custom http-client service: This service will use the angular HttpClient under the hood, but will also use the cache service mentioned above to get and save data from/to localstorage.

cache.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'

@Injectable()
export class CacheService {
    constructor() { }

    save(options: LocalStorageSaveOptions) {
        // Set default values for optionals
        options.expirationMins = options.expirationMins || 0

        // Set expiration date in miliseconds
        const expirationMS = options.expirationMins !== 0 ? options.expirationMins * 60 * 1000 : 0

        const record = {
            value: typeof options.data === 'string' ? options.data : JSON.stringify(options.data),
            expiration: expirationMS !== 0 ? new Date().getTime() + expirationMS : null,
            hasExpiration: expirationMS !== 0 ? true : false
        }
        localStorage.setItem(options.key, JSON.stringify(record))
    }

    load(key: string) {
        // Get cached data from localstorage
        const item = localStorage.getItem(key)
        if (item !== null) {
            const record = JSON.parse(item)
            const now = new Date().getTime()
            // Expired data will return null
            if (!record || (record.hasExpiration && record.expiration <= now)) {
                return null
            } else {
                return JSON.parse(record.value)
            }
        }
        return null
    }

    remove(key: string) {
        localStorage.removeItem(key)
    }

    cleanLocalStorage() {
        localStorage.clear()
    }
}

export class LocalStorageSaveOptions {
    key: string
    data: any
    expirationMins?: number
}

http-client.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'
import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http'
import { CacheService } from './cache.service'
import { Observable, of } from 'rxjs'
import { switchMap } from 'rxjs/operators'

export enum Verbs {
    GET = 'GET',
    PUT = 'PUT',
    POST = 'POST',
    DELETE = 'DELETE'
}

@Injectable()
export class HttpClientService {

    constructor(
        private http: HttpClient,
        private _cacheService: CacheService,
    ) { }

    get<T>(options: HttpOptions): Observable<T> {
        return this.httpCall(Verbs.GET, options)
    }

    delete<T>(options: HttpOptions): Observable<T> {
        return this.httpCall(Verbs.DELETE, options)
    }

    post<T>(options: HttpOptions): Observable<T> {
        return this.httpCall(Verbs.POST, options)
    }

    put<T>(options: HttpOptions): Observable<T> {
        return this.httpCall(Verbs.PUT, options)
    }

    private httpCall<T>(verb: Verbs, options: HttpOptions): Observable<T> {

        // Setup default values
        options.body = options.body || null
        options.cacheMins = options.cacheMins || 0

        if (options.cacheMins > 0) {
            // Get data from cache
            const data = this._cacheService.load(options.url)
            // Return data from cache
            if (data !== null) {
                return of<T>(data)
            }
        }

        return this.http.request<T>(verb, options.url, {
            body: options.body
        })
            .pipe(
                switchMap(response => {
                    if (options.cacheMins > 0) {
                        // Data will be cached
                        this._cacheService.save({
                            key: options.url,
                            data: response,
                            expirationMins: options.cacheMins
                        })
                    }
                    return of<T>(response)
                })
            )
    }
}

export class HttpOptions {
    url: string
    body?: any
    cacheMins?: number
}

Now, let's say we have a product service we use to retrieve a list of products from our API. In this service we'll use our recently created http-client service to make a request and save the data in the localstorage for 5 minutes:

// product.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'
import { HttpClientService } from './http-client.service'
import { Observable } from 'rxjs'

@Injectable()
export class ProductService {

    constructor(
        private _http: HttpClientService
    ) { }

    getAll(): Observable<Product[]> {
        return this._http
            .get<Product[]>({ url: 'https://example-api/products', cacheMins: 5 })
    }
}

export class Product {
    name: string
    description: string
    price: number
    available: boolean
}

What do you think about this strategy? Are you using other techniques like http-interceptor? Let me know in the comments below

Posted on by:

maurogarcia_19 profile

Mauro Garcia

@maurogarcia_19

Entrepreneur, Fullstack developer, Minimalist. Passionate about learning and trying new technologies

Discussion

markdown guide
 

Correct me i i am wrong your cached data is served but no request is made to check if there’s any update to the cached version

 

If you want to ignore the cached version, you just need to call the remove method of the cache service. Then, the http-client will return null after trying to get the data from cache and will fetch new data from the server

 

I don’t mean ignoring the cached version, i feel the user should be served the cached version first the a request to the server should also be sent instead of the cached version only served without making any request to the serve. I don’t know if it an efficient approach thou

I think that what you say may be or may not be the best solution based on your requirements. Example: maybe you are not working with critical information, or information is not updated regularly... Or maybe you have a slow server and you want to optimize resource usage...in those cases I think it's totally OK to prevent requests for a couple of minutes.

But if you need to always get the newest, what you are saying is perfectly valid. You can show the cached data first and, under the hood, fetch for new data and show a refresh button when there is new data to display

This is awesome, i will always put this in mind

 

Thanks for share Mauro. I think that your solution is clean and minimalist. I like it so much.

 

Thanks for your feedback Lucas! 😄

 

There is a use for localStorage, but can we just call it that instead of "Client-side caching" ? It's localStorage, and it's also limited space, so with "caching" people will assume you mean it can store the entire site, which in my cases it cannot.

 

I don't see any reason to cache HTTP requests other than GET. For any backend modification the server needs to be contacted...

 

That's right! Maybe I could remove cacheMins from HttpOptions and add an additional param only for get requests.

 

Nice and clean solution! The customer of a project I'm working on has requested a caching system and I think I will try to implement this one!

 

Nice to hear that! I also have a mechanism in place to clean all cached queries every time I release a new version of my angular apps. I'm gonna be sharing my approach this week.