## Introduction

In Java programming language, the collection type like List can be manipulated using `Stream`

.

## Optional Data Type

When using `Stream`

, there is a data type called `Optional`

. `Optional`

data type means a data that allows null value. Some `Stream`

functions use `Optional`

as the return value.

When there is a function that returns `Optional`

data type. The result must be checked using `isPresent()`

function to ensure the value is exists or not null.

## Using Java Stream

To use `Stream`

in Java, import the `Stream`

package.

```
import java.util.stream.*;
```

Then, convert the collection into `Stream`

using `stream()`

function.

```
// Basic syntax
collection_name.stream()
```

###
`map`

function

The `map`

function is used to create a mapping mechanism into the collection.

In this example, every data inside collection is multiplied by 2.

```
List<Integer> numbers = new ArrayList<>();
numbers.add(1);
numbers.add(2);
numbers.add(3);
numbers.add(4);
// using map function
List<Integer> updatedNumbers = numbers
.stream()
.map((i) -> i * 2)
.collect(Collectors.toList());
System.out.println(updatedNumbers);
```

Output

```
[2, 4, 6, 8]
```

Based on the code above, the lambda function (anonymous function) is added inside the `map()`

function to multiply every data inside the collection by 2. The lambda that defined inside the `map()`

function is `(i) -> i * 2`

. Then, the result from `map()`

function returns `Stream`

that can be collected into the list by using `collect(Collectors.toList())`

function.

###
`sum`

function

The `sum`

function is useful to calculate the sum of the values inside the collection. This function is suitable for the collection that contains numeric values.

In this example, the sum is used in `numbers`

collection.

The

`numbers`

collection is defined in`map`

section.

```
// using sum function
int sum = numbers.stream().mapToInt(i -> i).sum();
System.out.println(sum);
```

Output

```
10
```

Based on the code above, the sum result's data type is returned based on the collection type. Because the `numbers`

collection type is a integer collection. The sum result's data type is integer.

###
`average`

function

The average function is used to calculate the average of the values inside the collection. This function is suitable for the collection that contains numeric values.

In this example, the average is used in `numbers`

collection.

```
// using average method
OptionalDouble average = numbers.stream().mapToInt(i -> i).average();
// check if the value is exists
if (average.isPresent()) {
System.out.println(average.getAsDouble());
}
```

Output

```
2.5
```

Based on the code above, the average result returns `Optional`

data type. To check if the value is exists, use the `isPresent()`

function then the value can be accessed safely.

###
`max`

and `min`

function

The `max`

function is used to find the maximum value. The `min`

function is used to find the minimum value.

In this example, these functions is used in `numbers`

collection.

```
Optional<Integer> max = numbers.stream().max(Comparator.naturalOrder());
Optional<Integer> min = numbers.stream().min(Comparator.naturalOrder());
if (max.isPresent() && min.isPresent()) {
System.out.println("maximum value: " + max.get());
System.out.println("minimum value: " + min.get());
}
```

Output

```
maximum value: 4
minimum value: 1
```

Based on the code above, the maximum and minimum value is returned. Because both of these functions return `Optional`

data type, the `isPresent()`

function is used. The `Comparator.naturalOrder()`

is used inside `max()`

and `min()`

function to define the default comparator.

###
`filter`

function

The `filter`

function is used to select some values based on the specific criteria or condition.

In this example, the `filter`

function is used to select only even values in `numbers`

collection.

```
// using filter to filter only even values
List<Integer> integers = numbers
.stream()
.filter(integer -> integer % 2 == 0)
.collect(Collectors.toList());
System.out.println(integers);
```

Output

```
[2, 4]
```

Based on the code above, the return value from `filter()`

function is a `Stream`

that the values can be collected using `collect(Collectors.toList())`

. The result from `filter()`

function contains even value only.

###
`allMatch`

function

The `allMatch`

function is used to check if **all values** inside collection meets the certain criteria or condition.

In this example, the `allMatch`

is used to check if all values inside `numbers`

collection is even.

```
// using allMatch to check if all values is even
boolean allMatch = numbers.stream().allMatch(integer -> integer % 2 == 0);
System.out.println(allMatch);
```

Output

```
false
```

Based on the code above, the `numbers`

collection (`[1,2,3,4]`

) has even values but the other values is not so the `false`

is returned.

###
`anyMatch`

function

The `anyMatch`

function is used to check if a certain value meets certain criteria or condition.

In this example, the `anyMatch`

is used to check if a certain value is even in `numbers`

collection.

```
// using anyMatch to check if a certain value is even
boolean anyMatch = numbers.stream()
.anyMatch(integer -> integer % 2 == 0);
System.out.println(anyMatch);
```

Output

```
true
```

Based on the code above, there is a even value insied `numbers`

collection so the `true`

is returned.

###
`sorted`

function

The `sorted`

function is used to sort a values inside collection. By default, the `sorted`

function is sorting the value from smallest to largest value.

In this example, the `sorted`

function is used to sort a value inside `myNums`

collection.

```
List<Integer> myNums = new ArrayList<>();
myNums.add(44);
myNums.add(24);
myNums.add(1);
myNums.add(19);
// using sorted to sort the collection
List<Integer> sortedNums = myNums.stream().sorted().collect(Collectors.toList());
System.out.println("Sorted list: " + sortedNums);
```

Output

```
Sorted list: [1, 19, 24, 44]
```

Based on the code above, the value is sorted from the smallest value into largest value.

## Notes

- Use the
`Stream`

functions based on the use cases. - When a
`Stream`

function returns`Optional`

data type, check the value existence using`isPresent()`

to ensure the value is exists or not null.

This is the final part of java basic tutorial series in this blog. I hope this java basic tutorial series is helpful for learning the Java programming language 😀.

## Sources

- Learn more about Java Stream in this link.

I hope this article is helpful for learning the Java programming language. If you have any thoughts or comments you can write in the discussion section below.

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