AWS Region is a physical location around the world which consists of clusters of data centers. Each AWS Region consists of multiple, isolated, and physically separate Availability Zones within a geographic area. AWS Regions meet the highest levels of security, compliance, and data protection.
One should consider the following four business factors while determining the appropriate AWS Region for their services, data and applications :
Compliance with data governance and legal requirements - Depending on the company and location, one might need to run their data out of specific areas. For example, if the company requires all of its data to reside within the boundaries of the India, then one would choose the Mumbai Region.
Proximity to the customers - Selecting a Region that is close to the customers will help the company to get content to their customers faster.
Available services within a Region - Sometimes, the closest Region might not have all the features that the company want to offer to customers. So, the developers would have to run it in one of the Regions that offers the required features.
Pricing - The cost of services can vary from Region to Region depending upon the tax structure of a specific country or region.
An Availability Zone is a single data center or a group of data centers within a Region. Availability Zones are located 10's of miles apart from each other in order to maintain low latency between Availability Zones and also to reduce the chance that multiple Availability Zones are affected in case a disaster occurs in one part of the region.
It is always a best practice to run applications across at least two Availability Zones in a Region.
An Edge Location is a site that Amazon CloudFront uses to store cached copies of the content closer to the customers for faster delivery.
AWS Local Zones
AWS Local Zones stores compute, storage, database, and other select AWS services closer to customers in order to provide single digit millisecond latencies while running highly-demanding application.
With AWS Wavelength, developers can build applications that deliver single-digit millisecond latencies to mobile devices and customers by not leaving the mobile provider's network which reduces the extra network hops that can result in higher latencies.
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