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Puja Kundu
Puja Kundu

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JavaScript Hoisting

Hoisting is a default behaviour of JavaScript. It moves the declaration of variables and functions to the top of the current scope (script or function). In that way, a variable can be declared after it has been used and a function can be called before it is even written .
For example , the given code will not show any error ,by default var x will be moved before x = 20.

x = 20;
var x;

Output: 20

But this will only work if we use the var keyword.

Only declarations are hoisted , not initializations:

Example :

var x = 5;//Initialize x
console.log(`The values of x and y are: ${x} and ${y}`);
var y = 9;//Initialize y , won’t be hoisted

Output : The values of x and y are: 5 and undefined

The ‘let’ and ‘const’ keyword :

The variables declared with let and const keyword are hoisted to the top but will not work because they are not initialized.

The let keyword will cause ReferenceError :

Reference Error occurs when a non-existent variable is referenced. The variable declared with 'let' keyword will be considered non-existent until it is declared.

Example :

y = 10;
let y;

Output : ReferenceError: Cannot access 'y' before initialization

The const keyword will cause SyntaxError :

Using the 'const' keyword is considered as Syntax Error. So the code will not run.

Example :

y = 10;
const y;

Output : SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

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