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Chris Finn
Chris Finn

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JavaScript Basics

What is Javascript?

JavaScript is a high level, dynamically typed language that started off as a way to add functionality to an HTML page and now finds itself in just about everything from databases and servers on the backend to browsers, mobile devices, and even TV’s on the frontend.

Important Concepts


In Javascript there are two ways to define a function,

function foo(param) {


and (more succinctly) as an Arrow Function

const foo = (param) => doSomethingAmazing(param);

// If only one param, you can drop the parenthesis
const foo = param => doSomethingAmazing(param);


Arrow functions inherit the this object from the context at the time of calling.

Functions can also have Default parameters which are overriden if arguments are passed in.

function foo(param = 0) {

const foo = (param = 0) => ...



The original way to make asynchronous calls in JavaScript (e.g. retrieving items from a database) is with callbacks. A callback is a function that you pass as a parameter (usually the last) to another function which calls the callback function upon completion.

funcA(dataA => {
  funcB(dataB => {
    funcC(dataC => {

This nesting can get pretty insane, if you don’t trust me just google “Callback Hell”. To remedy this Promises were introduced to the language.


Promises were added to JavaScript to eliminate the callback hell.

A promise has three possible states, pending, fulfilled, or rejected. When a promise is fulfilled it resolves (using resolve(val)) to a value and when it is rejected (using reject(val)) it returns a reason it did not resolve. When resolved, the promise triggers the then clause and when rejected, it triggers the catch clause.

new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    // resolve('Resolved');
    // reject('Rejected');
  .then(value => {
  .catch(err => {

It might sound a bit confusing but it should become clear after seeing a few examples.

const wait = time => new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, time));

wait(1000).then(() => console.log('Resolved!'));

Here is an example of using the Fetch API which returns a promise and asynchrounously handles an HTTP request. As you can see, you can chain promises together to form a chain. Often times, a catch is added at the end to capture any errors that occur in the chain.

  .then(response => {
    return response.json();
  .then(myJson => {
  .catch(err => {
    throw new Error(err);


A newest and best approach is to use async/await.

Async functions enable you to write promise based code as if it were synchronous. An async function always returns a promise (A value returned that isn’t a promise is automatically wrapped in a resolved promise with the original return value).

async function foo() {
  return "Async!";

foo().then(value => console.log(value));

The await operator is used to wait for a Promise. It is important to note that this can only be used inside an Async function.

async function foo() {
    let promise = new Promise((res, rej) => {
        setTimeout(() => res("Resolved"), 2000)

    // wait here for promise to resolve...
    let result = await promise; 




Javascript variables come in three flavors

  • var: function scoped
  • let: block scoped
  • const: block scoped and immutable (cannot be changed once set)
function foo() {
    var a = "A";
    let b = "B";

    if(true) {
        console.log(a); // A
        console.log(b); // B

        var c = "C";
        // Scoped to the if block
        let d = "D";

    console.log(c) // C
    console.log(d) // d is not defined here!

    const e = "E";
    e = "F" // Error! Cannot re-assign const


Javascript classes are similar to their class counterpart in traditional object orientated languages.

class Vehicle {
    // Class constructor (initialized with new Vehicle(...))
    constructor(model, make, year) {
        this.model = model;
        this.make = make;
        this.year = year;

    // Getter
    get makeAndModel() {
        return `${make} ${model}`;

    // Setter
    set year(year) {
        this.year = year;

    // Class function
    getDescription() {
        return `A ${year} ${make} ${model}`;

class CoolVehicle extends Vehicle {
    getDesciption() {
        return `A cool ${year} ${make} ${model}`;

In a class constructor you may see super(...) which is used to reference the parent class.


Export a module or code using export ...

export const foo = "Foo";
export function bar() { ... };
export default function defaultFunc() { ... };
const myConst = "hey";
export myConst as Hey;

Import a module or code using import ... from ...

// Import all exports from module
import * from 'module'; 
// Import all exports from module addressable as
import * as myModule from 'module';
// Import default export
import foo from 'module';
// Import named exports
import { foo, bar } from 'module';

Temporal Literals

const firstName = "Michael";
const lastName = "Scott";
// Using temporal literals to create a string from the variables
const fullName = `${firstName} ${lastName}`; // Michael Scott

Spread Operator

You can expand an array, object, or string using the spread operator ....

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
const arr2 = [...arr, 'd'] // ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']

const obj = { firstName: 'Michael', lastName: 'Scott' };
// firstName key overwrites spreaded one because it comes after it
const obj2 = { ...obj, firstName: 'Mikey' }; // Mikey Scott

Destructuring Assignments

Destructure an array or object using a destructuring assignment.

[a, b,] = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50];
console.log(a); // 10
console.log(b); // 20
console.log(rest); // [30, 40, 50]

{a, b,} = {a: 10, b: 20, c: 30, d: 40};
console.log(a); // 10
console.log(b); // 20
console.log(rest); // {c: 30, d: 40}

Null vs Undefined

null is an empty or non-existent value and must be assigned.

let foo = null;
console.log(foo); // null

undefined usually means a variable is declared but has not been defined.

let foo;
console.log(foo); // undefined

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